Carole Diane Yawney (1944-2005) was an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at York University, where she taught in the area of Caribbean studies, racism, and women’s health since 1972. She is the author of more than 40 papers on the Rastafari movement, gender and medical anthropology.
Yawney passed away on July 23, 2005, the 113th anniversary of the birth of Emperor Haile Selassie. On the same day, Ras Mortimo Planno had his right leg amputated due to health complications. A friend later stated, "If ever souls were linked, these were two."
For Further Reading
Yawney, Carole D.
Yawney, Carole D. "Tell Out King Rasta Doctrine Around the Whole World: Rastafari in Global Perspective. In The Reordering of Culture: Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada in the Hood , edited by Alvina Ruprecht and Cecelia Taiana, pp. 65-83. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1995.
Yawney, Carole D.
Jake Homiak and Carole D. Yawney. "Rastafari." In Encyclopedia of African and African-American Religions, edited by Stephen D. Glazier, pp. 256-268. Routledge, 2001.
The National Anthropological Archives acquired a collection of Jamaican linguistic materials from the family of Frederick G. Cassidy (1907-2000), a Jamaican-born linguist who published the Dictionary of Jamaican English (2nd ed. 2006) and Jamaica Talk: Three Hundred Years of the English Language in Jamaica (Univ West Indies Press 2007). Cassidy served for many years as director of the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE) at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
The Cassidy collection includes 15 original sound recordings, fieldnotes, biographical notes, draft manuscripts, conference papers and correspondence, and a map of Jamaica marking the various locales where Cassidy worked.
Discovering Rastafari! A New Exhibit at the National Museum of Natural History:
Featuring rare photos, artifacts, and ephemera, this exhibition moves beyond the popular Jamaican music known as reggae to explore the origins and practice of the Rastafari religion in Jamaica and the movement's subsequent spread across the Caribbean and around the world.
Original video footage from the Human Studies Film Archives featuring Rastafari of different ages, nationalities, ethnicities and socioeconomic classes highlights the unity of the movement. An overview of the three major "mansions" (organizations) reveals the diversity of Rastafari and the core of sacred practices that guide the daily lives of its practitioners.
Jorge Preloran, whom Margaret Mead referred to as "one of the great independent filmmakers who represents a country and its people," taught at UCLA's Department of Theatre, Film and Television from 1976 until his retirement in 1994. He was a Guggenheim Fellow (1971, 1975) and a Fulbright Fellow (1987, 1994). In this photo, Preloran accepting the International Cinema Artist award from the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television in 2008. Photograph by Juan Tallo.
For Further Reading
Tamara L. Falicov. "Jorge Preloran." In Encyclopedia of Documentary Film, edited by Ian Aitken. NY: Routledge, 2006
Jorge Preloran, El Cine Etnográfico. Buenos Aires: Catálogos, 2006.
Jorge Preloran. "Conceptos éticos y estéticos en cine etnográfico." En, El Cine Documental Etnobiográfico de Jorge Preloran. Compilación Juan Jose Rossi. Buenos Aires: Editorial Búsqueda, 1987.
Graciela Taquini, "Los documentales de Jorge Preloran: un cine antropomórfico." En El Cine Documental Etnobiográfico de Jorge Preloran, compilación Juan Jose Rossi. Buenos Aires: Editorial Búsqueda, 1987.
American composer John Philip Sousa is widely known for Stars and Stripes Forever! and other marches, so the musical score of two Cherokee songs that he transcribed in 1890, long a part of our collections, is something of a mystery. Who taught Sousa the melody?
Scott Schwartz of the Sousa Archives and Center for American Music suggests that anthropologist James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology may have introduced Sousa to Cherokee or simply to the melody while Sousa was director of the Marine Band in Washington. Sousa debuted his Washington Post March at the Smithsonian in June 1889, shortly before this melody was transcribed. Mooney published his Myths of the Cherokees in 1888 and his Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee in 1891.
We thank Andrew J. Sikora (Cherokee) for singing the melody.
Gordon D. Gibson. Reference Print Collection, National Anthropological Archives.
The HSFA's YouTube channel features eight video clips of important historical and archaeological sites, selected from our large collection of amateur and professional travel films. Several of these sites have since been destroyed by man or nature including Arg-é Bam (the adobe Citadel of Bam, Iran), the Al-Askari Mosque (also known as the Golden Mosque of Samarra, Iraq), and the famous Buddha statues of Bamyan, Afghanistan.
The Bamyan clip, which has been viewed more than 14,000 times, is our most popular clip. After posting it on YouTube, the video was picked up by several Afghani blogs and online news sources.
Potter in Ceylon. Photograph by Janice M. Haynes.
Lecture films documenting traditional technologies in Ceylon including spinning and weaving, basket and mat weaving, metal working, gem mining, and the roping and rigging of a sail in Ceylon have been donated to the HSFA by Janice Haynes of Australia, whose husband Leslie M. Haynes shot the films in his role as chief investigator of Traditional Technology of Ceylon, a Smithsonian Institution Cooperative Research Program funded by the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Exchange between 1968-73. The film and associated photographs document 226 traditional craft objects from Ceylon previously donated to the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology and augment the original field reports and black and white photographs.
New Year Ceremonies in Lhasa, Tibet, 1942, photograph by Richard Kenneth Saker
Richard Kenneth Saker in Gyantse, Tibet, 1941 (photographer unknown)
New Grants Support Film Preservation, Collections Processing and Digitization
The Human Studies Film Archives has received a $10,417 federal grant from the National Film Preservation Foundation to preserve Herero of Ngamiland (1953), an early ethnographic film by anthropologist Gordon Gibson that was shot several years before he joined the National Museum of Natural History’s Department of Anthropology. The film captures the lifeways of the Herero, a pastoral Bantu people living in the northwest region of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana).
The National Anthropological Archives has received a $32,240 grant from the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund to arrange and describe the papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes and digitize her photographic collection.
The Human Studies Film Archives received a $15,000 Historical Archives Program grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation, via Cynthia Close of Documentary Educational Resources, as well as a $15,000 Supplemental Grant from Wenner-Gren to process the John Marshall Ju/'hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000.
Beautiful Japan Screened at Pompidou Centre
Beautiful Japan, a 1918 travel film by Benjamin Brodsky preserved in the Human Studies Film Archives, was shown in Cinema du Reel, the 30th international festival of documentary films, in the segment Pour une Histoire de la “Vue”: Figures du Tourisme, an exploration of mass tourism from the beginning of the 20th century and how the interplay of tourism and camera influenced the point of view of the visitor and visited.
A few of our interns, staff and contractors. Left to right: Cally Haggerty, Caitlin Markey, Patty McCloy, Mary Crauderueff, Jennifer Snyder, Jenny Ferretti, Daisy Njoku, Leanda Gahegan, Misha Lazarus, Lorain Wang, Holly Williams, Jade Luiz, Megan Bromberg, Karma Foley
Papers of Rastafari Scholar Carole Yawney Donated to the National Anthropological Archives
The times were exciting, but the hard-edged social environment in which Yawney had chosen to work was far from benign. At one point, Carole was kidnapped and held for the better part of a day at knife point until being rescued by Joe Williams, a notorious Jamaican policeman. Much of Carole's fieldwork was done at all hours of the night, when (as the Rasta say) "the saints walked while the heathens slept." As an apprentice to Mortimo Planno, whose Trench Town yard was a focal point for Rastafari cultural and political activity, Carole became familiar with the leading elders of the movement as well as a veritable Who’s Who of the reggae world: Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Ras Michael, Yamie Bolo, Roland Alphonso, Bongo Herman and others. As Planno's "recording secretary," she also served as a liaison between Jamaican elders and the Rastafari settler community in Shashamane, Ethiopia. These Trench Town years formed the basis of a relationship between Carole and Planno that would last for 35 years and take her across the Caribbean, throughout North America, to Europe, and ultimately to South Africa and Ethiopia as an ethnographer of Rastafari.
Over the years, as Carole began to develop her own trajectory within the far-flung Rastafari world, her multi-sided personality as a spiritual seeker, ethnographer and social activist became increasingly pronounced. She took to heart the well-known Jamaican proverb that "the truth is an offense but not a sin" when she began to publish, in the early 1980s, a series of revealing articles about the role of women in the Rastafari movement. For a movement that was expressly anti-colonial in outlook, Yawney took the position, unpopular among many Rastafari, that patriarchy within the movement was a remnant of a colonial mentality. And this was not simply an intellectual-academic position that she took within the ivory tower. She shared it liberally with the brethren and when she presented papers at in academic conferences, she made a point to have at least a few Rastafari present as 'witnesses' to what she and others had to say about the movement. For her, it was unacceptable that a movement of social and spiritual liberation was not fully utilizing all of the talents and capacities of half of its members.
Carole worked among Rastafari in prisons well before the advent of state-sponsored ministerial services to minority prison populations. She also served as an expert witness on behalf of Rastafari on nearly 30 occasions in the U.S., Canada, Jamaica and South Africa. Much of this work turned on issues of Rastafari livity (lifeways/philosophy) and the necessity for accommodations for inmates. She testified before the Jamaican Constitutional Court when Dennis Forsythe pressed his case for the sacramental use of ganja (marijuana) on the grounds of religious freedom, and before the Supreme Court of South Africa on behalf of Ras Garreth Prince, a lawyer who was prohibited from practicing law because he was a professed Rastafari. Carole was also a determined anti-racism advocate who drew upon her experiences and training in Rastafari.
Few people outside of her inner circle actually knew the extent to which Carole enabled all manner of Rastafari works as the movement became increasingly international. In this respect, she actively enabled the very phenomenon that she studied: the globalization of Rastafari culture. Carole brought Mortimo Planno to Canada in the late 1970s and again in 1980 to lecture at York University, where she taught. She was central to organizing the first Rastafari International Theocracy Assembly Conference in Toronto in 1981, at which Ras Sam Brown was the ranking Elder. Later came the 1984 Voices of Thunder mission to Canada by Ras Boanerges and two younger brethren, a series of forums that she created for Rastafari to publicly lecture on the philosophy and livity of the movement. This was followed by her support for Ras Boanegeses’ travel to Rastafari Focus at the Commonwealth Institute in the U.K. in 1986. Then there was her advocacy for MOVE and Mumia Abul Jamal, which she carried to Jamaica and South Africa in the early 1990s. And every time she visited South Africa during the 1990s, she never failed to link Planno in Jamaica to Rastafari in Cape Town via Bush Radio. Even Discovering Rastafari!, the recently launched exhibition in the National Museum of Natural History’s African Voices Hall, began as part of Carole’s impulse to carry the principled message of Rastafari farther.
During the last fifteen years of her life, Carole Yawney and Jake Homiak of the Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology joined their interests in Rastafari as research partners. They founded the International Rastafari Archives Project (IRAP), an effort to pull together both the ethnographic as well as the varied ephemeral materials that each had gathered over their careers. They later collaborated in South Africa, Panama, Jamaica and Ethiopia. After her untimely passing in 2005, Professor Yawney’s extensive personal archive, comprising some 130 cubic feet of multimedia materials, were donated to the Smithsonian’s National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives for continued use by other scholars.
The Yawney collection includes fieldnotes and diaries; film, video, photographs and audio recordings; correspondence (some restricted); grant proposals; clippings, posters and ephemera; and coursework and syllabi. The Yawney collection was processed by Adam Davis and Fiona Holmes with the support of a Wenner-Gren Foundation Historical Archives Program grant awarded to Carole Yawney and a companion contribution from the estate of Carole Yawney.
Pioneer ethnographic filmmaker Jorge Preloran, a cultural icon in Argentina, has donated his oeuvre to the Human Studies Film Archives. The collection includes 46 documentaries on ethnographic topics in the U.S. and Latin America, eleven of which focus on their protagonists' life-stories. Preloran is celebrated for having developed a cinematic genre known as ethnobiography, which filmmaker David MacDougall describes as sharing the testimonial qualities of Jean Rouch’s work while being closely related to the life history genre of ethnography:
In addition to Imaginero, considered one of the ten best films in Argentina’s film history by the nation's film critics, Preloran directed a feature fiction film, My Aunt Nora (1983); an Academy Award-nominated short film, Luther Metke at 94 (1979); and seven one-hour television programs — Patagonia-In Search of its Remote Past (1992) — narrated by 46 international scientists from the biological and earth sciences. The Preloran collection also contains outtakes (film not used in the edited films), original audio tapes, photographs, scripts, translations and clipping and Preloran's personal and professional correspondence with his collaborators, his films' main characters, and their friends and relatives.
Among his many honors, Preloran received the Golden Astor award for life achievement at the Mar del Plata Film Festival in Argentina (2005) and has also been declared a Distinguished Citizen by the City of Buenos Aires (2005). In 2008, Preloran was awarded the International Cinema Artist by the UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television. A feature length Argentine documentary film on Preloran’s life’s philosophy, Huellas y Memoria (Footsteps and Memory), is scheduled to be released in 2009.
The Preloran collection will be processed with the support of a Wenner-Gren Foundation Historical Archives Program grant awarded to Jorge Preloran.
The National Anthropological Archives is pleased to announce its acquisition of the professional papers of Gordon Gibson (1915-2007), formerly curator emeritus in the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution. Gibson conducted research among the Himba, Herero and Kuvale in Angola, Botswana, Kenya and Namibia, and was regarded as an expert on dual descent systems. Born in Vancouver, B.C., he studied nuclear physics at Cal Tech, but switched to anthropology after taking a summer course in at UC Berkeley. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1952, and taught for several years at the University of Utah before joining the staff of the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology as its curator of African ethnology in 1958. There, Gibson developed the Hall of African Cultures, the Smithsonian's first permanent African exhibit; it remained on view until 1992.
Gibson played a key role in establishing the Human Studies Film Archives (founded as the National Anthropological Film Center in 1975). During his tenure at the National Museum of Natural History, Gibson also served as the first chair of the museum's Senate of Scientists (1963-1964), chair of the museum's photographic facilities committee (1968), a member of the Center for the Study of Man. He held several offices and committee memberships in the Anthropological Society of Washington and served as film review editor of the American Anthropologist during the 1960s and 70s. In 1980, he chaired a committee which studied the feasibility of establishing a Smithsonian Institution Museum of Man. He retired to Escondido, CA in 1983.
Gibson's edited films include Herero of Ngamiland (1953), Himba Wedding (1969), and The Himba (1972). These and his research films of the Kuvale and Zimba were deposited in the Human Studies Film Archives in 1983. Gibson was also the author of A Bibliography of Anthropological Bibliographies: Africa (1969) and The Kavango Peoples (with Thomas J. Larson and Cecilia R. McGurk (1981). He published articles on Herero and Himba marriage, bridewealth and exchange, oral traditions and material culture. A special interest were the early donors and collectors of African material culture in the Smithsonian Institution, about which he conducted extensive research (an unpublished manuscript can be found in his collection).
The Gordon D. Gibson papers include fieldnotes, photographs, sound recordings, maps, drawings, professional correspondence, HRAF files (both original and published), card files (mainly bibliographic), research reports and office files. The papers were processed by Lorain Wang with the support of a Wenner-Gren Foundation Historical Archives Program grant awarded to Gibson's son, Roger Gibson of Middletown, MD. An obituary written by Mary Jo Arnoldi appears in Anthropology News (January 2008).
The papers of Chris Gjording (1943-93), a Catholic priest who lived among the Guaymi peoples of Panama for many years before beginning his anthropological research with them, have been donated to the National Anthropological Archives. Gjording's work combined meticulous local-level ethnographic description with an analysis of the transnational economic processes that enmeshed Guaymi society after one of the world’s largest copper deposits was discovered on their land in the 1970s. His fieldnotes provide a unique window on the way anthropologists conduct multi-sited fieldwork combining local, national and international social fields.
Gjording’s fieldnotes join an extensive collection of ethnographic materials relating to Panamanian peoples (including the Marsh Darian Expedition of 1924-25) as well as a growing collection of materials that document the work of anthropologists in applied, non-academic and non-traditional roles. These include the papers of Frederick L.W. Richardson (a corporate consultant for IBM and Raytheon); Frank Dubinskas (who studied Apple manufacturing management in the early 1990s); Jon Breslar (USAID management); and the records of some of the nation's earliest salvage ethnography, linguistic, and archaeology projects. Along with the papers of William Smalley, Gjording's papers document the role of anthropological theory in missionary work and the lives of missionaries who were also trained anthropologists. Gjording’s fieldnotes will be processed with the support of a Wenner-Gren Foundation Historical Archives Program grant awarded to his sister, Karin J. Gjording.
Film and photographs taken by Richard Kenneth Saker, a British Trade Agent in Gyantse, Tibet, between 1941 and 1943, have been donated to the Human Studies Film Archives by his son, Stephen. Saker traveled to Lhasa in 1942 to witness the New Year festivities where he filmed and photographed the celebrations. The following summer he toured western Tibet, a sparsely populated region that few Europeans had visited. There he met nomads and Indian traders, visited the sacred lake of Manosawar and took a three-day pilgrimage around the sacred mountain of Kailas, believed to be the home of lord Shiva and his consort, Parbatti. The donation includes three chapters from Saker’s charming unpublished memoirs. He concludes his memories of Tibet: "Tibet and its people will always remain vividly in my memory, and it is always painful to me to think that the chapter of Tibet as I knew it has since been closed forever."
Archivist Karma Foley made two interesting discoveries while processing John Marshall’s Ju/’hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection. The first was nearly fifteen hours of sync sound color outtakes from Bushmen of the Kalahari (1974), a television special produced by David Wolper for National Geographic. The TV program was co-directed by John Marshall and featured his attempt to locate the G/wi Bushmen of the central Kalahari Desert, a group he first met and filmed in 1955. Neither Wolper Productions nor National Geographic saved the outtakes from this show; luckily, Marshall had kept his own copy of this rich footage. The outtakes depict agricultural activities, animal husbandry, hunting, nighttime curing dances, games and Marshall’s reunion with G/wi and Ju/’hoan friends. The material provides an interesting comparison with Marshall’s 1955 footage of the G/wi in Botswana and shows his enduring relationship with the Ju/’hoansi.
The second discovery was of a previously unknown film project shot in Ghana by Marshall in collaboration with ethnomusicologist Nicholas England. The footage focuses on the music and influence of Vinoko Akpalu, an important Ewe composer and poet. Marshall shot 20,000 feet of 16mm film (more than 9 hours) in Akpalu’s hometown of Anyako, Ghana, in August 1972. Subjects include daily life in Anyako, religious ceremonies, musical performances, dance and interviews. Akpalu himself is interviewed, and it appears that many of the ceremonies and performances were done as part of Akpalu’s 87th birthday celebration. Nicholas England recorded the synchronous sound for Marshall’s film and made additional audio recordings, which are now held at the UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive. Vinoko Akpalu died two years after this footage was shot, in 1974. It appears that Marshall and England planned to edit a film from their material, but the project was never completed.
Robert Leopold has been invited to serve on the Society of American Archivists' Committee on Ethics and Professional Conduct; the AAA's Committee on the Future of Print and Electronic Publishing; and the Strategic Advisory Committee for Smithsonian Enterprises. He recently published The Second Life of Ethnographic Fieldnotes in Ateliers: Série thématique du Laboratoire d'ethnologie et de sociologie comparative 32 (2008).
Interns and Volunteers
John Beckmann inventoried the papers of Grover Krantz, and rehoused and numbered negatives and transparencies relating to New Guinea film projects for the Human Studies Film Archives.
Megan Bromberg (Bates College) digitized 3,000 slides depicting culture and religion in Ladakh, India in 1978. Megan also archivally housed the Richard Kenneth Saker collection of still photographs of Tibet (1941-1943) and wrote cataloging descriptions for 21 episodes of the Hal Linker television travel series, Three Passports to Adventure.
Mary Crauderueff (Information Studies, Univ. Maryland) processed the Irving Goldman Papers, created catalog records and assisted the reference archivist during her internship with Lorain Wang and Leanda Gahegan.
Edmund Downie (St. Albans School, Washington, D.C.) inventoried the correspondence files of the Bureau of American Ethnology and digitized material from the NAA's audio collection.
Cally Haggerty (Kenyon College) interned in the Human Studies Film Archives this summer under a grant provided by the National Museum of Natural History’s Collections Care Fund. She worked with processing archivist Karma Foley to improve access to one of the HSFA’s largest collections, the Marshall Ju/’hoan Film and Video Collection, by organizing the numerous shot logs and translations in the collection. These important supplementary materials will soon appear in SIRIS, our online collections catalog.
Misha Lazarus (Loyola College in Maryland) assisted Stephanie Ogeneski in the digital imaging lab.
Jade Luiz (Portland State) conducted research for a large-scale retrospective cataloging project, created inventories for our photographic collections and for the AAA's Committee on Ethics and Anthropology News, and assisted researchers in the NAA's reading room.
Caitlin Markey (McGill University), a Latino Program internship recipient, assisted in digitizing lantern slides from the Helen Hamilton Gardener Photograph Collection relating to Puerto Rico. She also digitized lantern slide collections from Cuba and photographic prints from Mexico.
Meghan Markey (Univ. Maryland 2007) worked in the reading room answering reference questions and assisting patrons. Meghan is currently volunteering with the Peace Corps in the Philippines.
Patricia McCloy (Oakton High School, Vienna, VA) interned as assistant to the Media Resource Specialist. She made reference video copies, responded to reference requests, and photocopied archival materials for researchers.
Kate Ottaviano (Wesleyan Univ.) created a finding aid for the Acee Blue Eagle Collection, conducted research for a large-scale retrospective cataloging project and performed reference-related research.
Lynette Parish (Clarion Univ.) assisted firm archivist Pam Wintle in inventorying the original and outtake film from the Hal and Halla Linker television travelogue collection this past spring.
Holly Williams (School of Library and Information Science, Kent State) created cataloged records and inventories for items from the NAA's collections.
Publication date: November 2008