National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives


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Guide to the Collections
of the Human Studies Film Archives

South America

SA-75.2.2: [AUFS Bolivia Aymara Film Project, 1973]
1973; 40,000 ft (18 hrs) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,2,3,4,6
Full film record of the American Universities Field Staff "Faces
of Change" film project in Bolivia. Footage was shot in a high
Andes valley of western Bolivia in the villages of Ayata (a
primarily mestizo town) and Vitocota (an Aymara Indian
community), both located in Munecas Province, Department of La
Paz. The project explored the nature of Altiplano social
structure as manifest between the residents of these related
communities, focusing on social and cultural factors which unite
as well as divide them. Documentation includes: planting and
harvesting of potatoes and ocha; manufacture of chicha (corn
beer); sheep herding; market days; the Fiesta of Santiago held
conjointly between Vitocota and Ayata and the Fiesta of San
Lorenzo in Ayata; dispute management and settlement which
accompanies these celebrations; syncretic rites (using coca
leaves) performed at the beginning of the Aymara year (August 1);
the role of Aymara women in the Andean economy; and the syncretic
nature of Altiplano Bolivian religious and magical beliefs and
practices. The edited films VIRACOCHA, THE CHILDREN KNOW, POTATO
PLANTERS, ANDEAN WOMEN, THE SPIRIT POSSESSION OF ALEJANDRO
MAMANI, and MAGIC AND CATHOLICISM were produced from this film
project.
Creator: Hubert Smith, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

SA-76.5.1: LAST OF THE BOROROS
1930-1931; 1,200 ft (32 min) silent b&w; film/video;
supplementary materials: 1,2,3,4,6
Edited film shot on an expedition to the Mato Grosso of Brazil.
Film documents various aspects of daily and ceremonial life in
the Bororo village of Bobore on the Paraguay River west of
Cuiaba. The film was made in the course of an ostensive attempt
to rescue British explorer Colonel Percy Fawcett and his son who
disappeared on the Xingu River. Shots of historical and
ethnographic interest include: Aloha Baker meeting with General
Candido Rondon in Rio de Janeiro, rail travel from Sao Paulo to
Corumba, boats landing and the expedition plane taking off and
landing at the Descalvados ranch, a first contact scenario with
Bororo of Bobore village, reception by the chief and male
villagers in front of the baitemannageo (men's house), palaver
and gift-giving through the chief, adornment for ceremonial
dances which includes face and body painting with urucu and
wearing of spectacular headdresses of macaw feathers, food
preparation (women winnowing and pounding grain), Aloha Baker
with a bari (shaman), a sequestered male ceremonial dance
(associated with the dual social and cosmological organization of
Ge-speaking tribes), and two Bororo men experiencing couvade
(sympathetic labor pains).
Creator: Aloha Baker, explorer (1908- )

SA-77.1.4: [Saramaka Maroons of Surinam, 1928]
1928; 1,313 ft (41 min) silent b&w; film/video
Footage shot during a field trip in Dutch Guyana (Surinam).
Included are: Maroons poling boats up the Saramaka River,
negotiating rapids and shallows; shots in Parimaribo of Creole
Blacks in yards; aspects of Creole dress; Saramaka woman
winnowing grain; man working on a dugout canoe; natives playing
wari (a West African game widely distributed in the New World);
portaging of large canoes over shallow rapids; village with
thatched houses; a gudu wosu (man's personal house) with
distinctive carving on door and frontice; natives posing with
carved paddles; Maroon playing the apinti drum used to telegraph
messages from village to village; Lombe Village; chief posing in
traditional dress; Saramaka crafts (man carving paddle); shrines
in Lombe; and the medicine man of Gandya Village.
Creator: Melville J. Herskovits, anthropologist (1895-1963)
Creator: Morton Kahn, medical doctor (1896-1959)

SA-78.3.1: [Jivaro Indians of Ecuador, c. 1936]
c. 1936; 590 ft silent b&w; film
Footage taken among the Shuar (Jivaro) Indians near the
confluence of the Zamora and Nangarisa rivers north of Loja,
province of Zamora Chinchipe, southern Ecuador. Footage includes:
prospecting party on horseback in the foothills north of Loja;
aerial shots over the mountains; contact scenes between
prospectors and Shuar; posed shots of adults and children around
Shuar communal houses; Shuar men building a large communal house
(setting posts, climbing posts, and lashing crossmembers with
lianas); woman making a clay pot by coil method; women making and
distributing nijimanche (fermented yucca beer); taking meals;
women with lip plugs and men in feathered headdresses; river
scenes including swimming and bathing; Shuar and prospectors in
dugout canoes; prospectors and Shuar at each others' encampments;
and Shuar men with rifles and other evidence of cultural contact.
Creator: Vincent Biava, gold prospector

SA-81.5.1: THE AX FIGHT
1975; 1,080 ft (30 min) sound color; film/video
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo Film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. The film
documents a fight which erupts in Mishimishimabowei-teri Village
involving clubs, machetes, and axes. The footage, which is
repeated four times, includes: (1) the unedited record of the
fight, (2) a replay of the fight scenes in slow motion in which
key figures and their kinship relations are identified, (3) a
discussion of the fight in terms of kinship structure which
illustrates the fight as a pattern of conflict and alliance over
time, and (4) an edited version.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.3.1: [Ashaninka of Eastern Peru, 1979 and 1982]
1979 and 1982; 17,000 ft silent color; film; supplementary
materials: 3
Full film record documenting the Ashaninka (also known as the
Campa) of the eastern Peruvian rainforest. Footage was shot in
two villages, Otika and Oviri, on the upper Tambo River, Peru.
Extensive documentation of Ashaninka subsistence in the eastern
foothills of the Andes includes: slash-and-burn agriculture;
fishing expeditions in which men use komo root to poison fish;
making of masato, a fermented drink central to daily subsistence
and recreation; making of arrows; spinning of cotton thread and
weaving of cloth; basket making; and preparing and eating meals.
Ritual and other activities include: singing, dancing, and
playing panpipes; an indigenous medical practice known as
ciokanci (a diagnosing technique); face and body decoration; a
marriage ceremony; childbirth; and preparation of kamarami
(ayahuasca), a psychotropic drink. Project is believed to be the
only film documentation on the Ashaninka, an indigenous group
which has resisted acculturation since contact with colonists
during the rubber boom at the turn of this century. The film,
BEFORE WE KNEW NOTHING, was made from this project.
Creator: Diane Kitchen, filmmaker (1949- )

SA-84.16.1: [Yanomamo Film Project, 1968 and 1971]
1968 and 1971; 97,000 ft sound color; supplementary materials:
1,3,5,6
Full film record of the Yanomamo Indians of southern Venezuela
and northern Brazil (between the Negro and Upper Orinoco rivers),
the largest surviving group of indigenous people in the Amazon
Basin. Footage includes documentation of domestic life in various
Yanomamo shabonos (villages), the formation of political
alliances between villages, gender-related subsistence and
hunting activities, childcare, trading activities, shamanic
performances, and myth-telling. The Yanomamo film series was
produced from this film project (see also descriptions of edited
films).
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.2: ARROWS
1974; 360 ft (10 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. Young Yanomamo
boys have an arrow fight using blunt arrows.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.3: BRIDE SERVICE
1975; 360 ft (10 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. Young Yanomamo
man returns from hunting with a wild turkey and a basket of fruit
for his father-in-law. This film shows how the food is collected
in observance of avoidance rules and in keeping with gender
roles, division of labor, and familial obligations.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.4: CHILDREN'S MAGICAL DEATH
1974; 252 ft (7 min) sound color; video; supplementary materials:
1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A group of young
Yanomamo boys pretend to be shamans by imitating their fathers'
activities.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.5: CLIMBING THE PEACH PALM TREE
1974; 324 ft (9 min) sound color; video; supplementary materials:
1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A young Yanomamo
man constructs a climbing frame in order to harvest the fruit
from the spiny barked peach palm tree.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.6: A FATHER WASHES HIS CHILDREN
1974; 540 ft (15 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A Yanomamo shaman
and village headman takes nine of his children and grandchildren
to the river where he washes them.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.7: THE FEAST
1968; 1,044 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1968 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. Film documents a
Yanomamo village feast which proves to be successful in forming
an alliance with another Yanomamo village.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.8: FIREWOOD
1974; 360 ft (10 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and Upper Orinoco rivers. The laborious and
tedious daily work of collecting wood by Yanomamo women is
revealed in this film of a Yanomamo woman chopping a large log
and carrying the wood back to the village.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.9: JAGUAR: A YANOMAMO TWIN CYCLE MYTH AS TOLD BY
DARAMASIWA
1976; 729 ft (22 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. Film documents a
performance of the myth of Jaguar--a prominent figure throughout
South American mythology--by a virtuoso Yanomamo storyteller. The
nuances of non-verbal communication and the details of the
narrative suggest reflections on the nature of performance and
communication in Yanomamo society and the complexity of its
intellectual systems.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.10: MAGICAL DEATH
1973; 1,044 ft (29 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A powerful
Yanomamo shaman summons spirits to destroy the souls of an
enemy's children for their new allies.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.11: A MAN AND HIS WIFE WEAVE A HAMMOCK
1974; 432 ft (12 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A Yanomamo
village headman weaves a hammock while his wife and infant watch.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.12: MOONBLOOD: A YANOMAMO CREATION MYTH AS TOLD BY
DEDEHEIWA
1974; 504 ft (14 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. The film
documents a shaman telling the Yanomamo myth of the creation of
humans and their penchant for violence.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.13: MYTH OF NARO AS TOLD BY DEDEHEIWA
1974; 792 ft (22 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A myth of a man's
envy for his brother as told by a Yanomamo shaman and village
headman. The story is the origin of harmful magic. This film with
the following film of the same myth shows contrasting styles of
story telling.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.14: MYTH OF NARO AS TOLD BY KAOBAWA
1975; 792 ft (22 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A myth of a man's
envy of his brother as told by a Yanomamo village headman. The
story is the origin of harmful magic. This film with the film
above of the same myth shows contrasting styles of story telling.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.15: NEW TRIBES MISSION
1974; 432 ft (12 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. The film shows
the efforts of a mission in Bisaasi-teri to acculturate the
neighboring Yanomamo people to Western civilization and
Christianity.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.16: OCAMO IS MY TOWN
1974; 828 ft (23 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. This film
describes the efforts of an extraordinary Salesian priest to
soften the impact of civilization on the local Yanomamo people
living in the area of his mission on the Ocamo River.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.17: TAPIR DISTRIBUTION
1975; 540 ft (15 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and southern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A gift of a tapir
is offered by a Yanomamo village headman to an important
political block within the village in hopes of strengthening a
shaky alliance. The meat is prepared, cooked, and distributed.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.18: TUG-OF-WAR, YANOMAMO
1975; 324 ft (9 min) sound color; video; supplementary materials:
1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. Children and
women of a Yanomamo village play a game of tug-of-war.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-84.16.19: WEEDING THE GARDEN
1974; 504 ft (14 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,5,6
Edited film produced from the 1971 Yanomamo film project shot in
the Amazon Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
between the Negro and the Upper Orinoco rivers. A Yanomamo shaman
and village headman weeds his manioc garden and interacts with
his wife and children.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-85.5.1: [Canari Textile Technology, 1968]
1968; 450 ft (14 min) silent b&w; video
Footage documenting Ecuadorian Canari textile processes from
sheep shearing to cleaning the wool, through spinning to weaving
the cloth.
Creator: Leslie Brownrigg, anthropologist

SA-85.5.2: [Film Study of a Peruvian Highland Community, 1970]
1970; 5,000 ft silent color; supplementary materials: 1,2,6
Full film record documenting life in the Peruvian village of
Mayobamba and its sister community established by villagers who
have migrated to Lima.
Creator: Leslie Brownrigg, anthropologist

SA-85.11.4: THE TWILIGHT OF THE PRIMITIVE
c. 1969; 1,800 ft (50 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3
Edited film of the Mato Grosso region of Brazil was shot in 1968.
Film begins with a visit to Orlando Villas Boas who escorts
Cotlow and party to the settlements of the upper Xingu people.
Ethnographic footage includes village dwellings, body painting,
ritual dances, and a wrestling match among unidentified
neighboring groups. Other footage of indigenous peoples includes
the Shavante, their village settlements, and the initiation
rituals of young men. The filmmakers also visit the Shuar
(Jivaro) of the Morona River area and film a simulated "hostile
encounter" with male members of the group and the reenactment of
a headhunting raid, head shrinking, and tsantsa dance. Included
are scenes of women harvesting and preparing manioc and
plantains, bathing children, and making clay pots. Footage shot
among the men includes gathering, spinning, and weaving cotton;
harvesting sugarcane; making blow guns, poison darts, and spears;
and gathering achiote plants for body painting.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)

SA-85.11.6: JUNGLE HEADHUNTERS
1949; 2,350 ft (73 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3
Edited film was made in the course of the Lewis Cotlow Amazon
expeditions and in association with RKO Radio Pictures. The film
is a compilation of footage shot during three expeditions into
the Amazon region of South America (1940, 1945, and 1949) with a
narrative constructed around a journey to locate and film the
Shuar (Jivaro) of the western Amazon region of Peru. Film opens
with a preliminary encounter with the Cuna Indians of the San
Blas Islands off the eastern coast of Panama followed by
embarkation upriver from the Brazilian port of Belem at the mouth
of the Amazon and continuing by motorized dugout canoe into the
Mato Grosso region. First contact sequences with indigenous
people are filmic reenactments and several of the dances have
been dubbed over with contemporary western dance music. Footage
of ethnographic interest includes: Bororo settlements in the Mato
Grosso; feather headdresses worn by men; river travel; fishing
techniques; a wrestling match (most likely among upper Xingu
people); Yagua dances and hunting near the Peruvian border in the
Andes; and body painting, dress, music, and dances among the
Colorado of eastern Ecuador. Film concludes with sequences shot
among the Shuar of the Sepa River area, including jivarias
(settlements), bathing, manufacture of poisonous darts, making of
nijimache (fermented yucca beer), tsantsa (shrinking of human
head), and accompanying tsantsa dance.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)

SA-85.11.8: IN SEARCH OF THE PRIMITIVE
c. 1966; 1,800 ft (50 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3
Edited film used by explorer Lewis Cotlow on lecture tours
throughout the United States. A compilation of footage from
JUNGLE HEADHUNTERS, the film shows travel through regions of the
Amazon by riverboat, motorized dugout canoe, mule, and foot.
Ethnic groups depicted in the film include the Cuna, Bororo,
Yagua, Colorado, and Jivaro.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)

SA-86.11.7: [Willian E. Carter Footage of Aymara Village,
Bolivia, c. 1960-1961]
c. 1960-1961; 1,400 ft (49 min) silent color; video
Footage documenting various aspects of daily life and ceremonial
activities in an Aymara altiplano village, Igavi Province,
Bolivia. Documentation includes: an Aymara wedding with church
service and festivities; festival activities during Carnival
which includes various costumed and masked-dance traditions
(e.g., Morenda dancers) performed in the village plaza; a funeral
service and burial; and various economic and subsistence
activities including brickmaking, plowing, and harvesting of
grain. Footage forms part of the William Earl Carter Papers in
the National Anthropological Archives.
Creator: William E. Carter, anthropologist (1927-1983)

SA-86.13.17: INDIVIDUALITY AND SOLIDARITY AMONG THE CANELA
1975; 432 ft (8 min) sound color; film/video; supplementary
materials: 1,2,3,5,6
Edited film produced for the National Anthropological Film
Center, Smithsonian Institution, examins how personal freedom to
pursue individual expression in children is harmonious with
developing a strong group solidarity among the Canela Indians of
Maranhao, Brazil.
Creator: William Crocker, anthropologist (1924- )
Creator: Steven Schecter, NAFC cameraman (1957- )
Creator: E. Richard Sorenson, NAFC director (1929- )

SA-86.13.31: [Film Studies of Traditional Indian Life in Brazil:
Canela, 1975]
1975; 84,000 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials:
2,3,4,6
Full film record was created for the National Anthropological
Film Center, Smithsonian Institution, and filmed among the Canela
Indians, a Ge speaking tribe in northeastern Brazil. Research
film project concentrates on socialization of children. Footage
also contains daily life activities including food preparation,
cultivation, hunting, grooming, and playing soccer. An initiation
of boys with accompanying celebrations and log racing, Wild Boar
day, and a funeral were also filmed.
Creator: William Crocker, anthropologist (1924- )
Creator: Steven Schecter, NAFC cameraman (1957- )
Creator: E. Richard Sorenson, NAFC director (1929- )

SA-86.13.32: [Film Studies of Traditional Indian Life in Brazil:
Canela, 1979]
1979; 39,540 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials
Full film record was created for the National Anthropological
Film Center, Smithsonian Institution, and filmed among the Canela
Indians, a Ge speaking tribe in northeastern Brazil. Research
film project concentrates on socialization of children. Footage
also contains daily life activities including food preparation
and distribution, doing bead work, hunting, preparing manioc,
grooming, making and cooking meat pies, and collecting honey and
a funeral.
Creator: William Crocker, anthropologist (1924- )
Creator: Steven Schecter, NAFC cameraman (1957- )
Creator: E. Richard Sorenson, NAFC director (1929- )

SA-86.16.2: FAMILIAR FOODS FROM FOREIGN FOLK
c. 1923; 684 ft (19 min) silent b&w; film/video
Edited film produced for educational distribution shows lime
harvesting and tapioca production from cassava in the West
Indies, tea harvesting in Japan, and coffee bean harvesting in
Brazil.

SA-87.13.1: RAZAS Y COSTUMBRES: EL GRANIZO*
1985; 17 min sound color; video
Television broadcast documents a ritual performed in Bolivia by
the Aymara in the Lake Titicaca environs to protect their crops
from hailstorms.
Creator: Armando de Urioste, filmmaker

SA-87.13.1: RAZAS Y COSTUMBRES: LOS NEGROS DE LAS YUNGAS*
1985; 10 min sound color; video
Television broadcast documenting the la saya ritual/festivity of
the Blacks who live and farm in Bolivian valleys.
Creator: Armando de Urioste, filmmaker

SA-87.13.2: ABRIENDO BRECHA*
1984; 32 min sound color; video
Edited film documenting the plight of the workers in Bolivian
sugar cane fields.
Creator: Paolo Agazzi, filmmaker

SA-88.9.1: Eduardo the Shaman: A Case Study of Culture and
Hallucinogens
1977; 22,000 ft (24 hrs) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 3,4
Full film record explores a pre-Columbian tradition of folk
therapy known as curanderismo in northern Peru. Footage documents
the daily activities of Eduardo Calderon, a Peruvian fisherman,
ceramicist, and curandero (healer). Scenes of the healer in
various interactions with members of his family and local
community illustrate the cultural context for his diagnosis and
healing. Also noted is the local pre-Columbian ceramic art and
iconography important to Eduardo's healing practice, the use of
herbs (including the San Pedro cactus), divination using a live
guinea pig, the ritual manipulations of the healer on his mesa
(table), and various "seances" or curing ceremonies. The edited
film EDUARDO THE HEALER was produced from this footage.
Creator: Richard Cowan, filmmaker
Creator: Douglas Sharon, anthropologist (1943- )

SA-88.12.1: [Hacienda Vicos, 1954-1955]*
1954-1955; 3,455 ft (1 hr 41 min) silent color/b&w; video;
supplementary materials: 3
Footage shot in Peru of life in Hacienda Vicos. Scenes depict
agricultural activities (breaking ground with oxen and wooden
plows and hoeing and digging potatoes), panoptic views of high
valley, making mud bricks for house construction, school grounds
and classroom scenes, mestizo women spinning wool while men work
the fields, man setting up and operating a loom, domestic
activities with women and children, a woman curer ministering to
sick patient and divining from the entrails of a guinea pig,
ceremonial activities around the plaza of local church, and
crowds and religious festival activity--a procession with image
of the Virgin Mary. Footage was shot in association with a
Cornell University project directed by Allan Holmberg to study
the transformation of a colonial hacienda into a free community.
Creator: John Collier, Jr., anthropologist

SA-88.16.10: BRAZIL'S GIFT
c. 1929; 400 ft (20 min) silent b&w/color; video
Edited film produced to promote Brazilian coffee. Descriptive
intertitles complement footage documenting the coffee industry
including the cultivation, harvest, drying, transportation,
selection, and packaging of coffee beans, and ultimately, scenes
of people enjoyng the product and demonstrating coffee recipes.

SA-88.18.1: PERU: WHEN THE WORLD TURNED DARK*
c. 1988; 51 min sound color; video
Edited film, produced for Cinematograficas Arawak S.A., focuses
on the religious celebrations of the village of Yanque where
Andean rites continue to be followed along with Christian rituals
which have survived from the colonial era. Also examined are
current myths of the Colca Valley, including the one arising from
the Spanish assassination of the Incan Atahualpa.
Creator: Maria Luisa Lobo, filmmaker

SA-90.1.3: SAMBA*
1988; 23 min sound color; video
Edited film produced for National Geographic Society Expolorer
Television series focuses on preparations for and performance in
Brazil's Carnival Samba parade. Film features Samba dancers from
the Manguera slums of Rio de Janiero, Brazil, as they prepare for
the Samba parade and an interview with the Manguera master of
Samba. Scenes include rehearsing for the parade, costume
construction, streets and homes of Manguera, and the children's
and adult's Samba parade in which 16 Samba schools compete.
Manguera inhabitants express conflicting views of Samba as an
essential expression of community pride and as an impediment to
economic improvement of an impoverished community.
Creator: Steve Burns, film producer (1950- )

SA-90.4.1: MACUMBA, TRANCE AND SPIRIT HEALING (outtakes)
1985; 18,500 ft sound color; film
Outtakes from a film project documenting the rapidly growing
spiritist religion in urban Brazil known variously as Umbanda or
Macumba. Edited film MACUMBA, TRANCE AND SPIRIT HEALING was made
from this project. For further information see edited film entry.
Creator: Madeleine Richeport, anthropologist

SA-90.4.3: MACUMBA, TRANCE AND SPIRIT HEALING
1985; 1,548 ft sound color
Edited film on the rapidly growing spiritist religion in urban
Brazil known variously as Umbanda or Macumba. Shot principally in
Rio de Janeiro, the film documents the beliefs, practices, and
organization of various Umbanda centros and reveals the
combination of African spiritism, Catholicism, and European
spiritism that characterizes this distinctively Brazilian
religion. Scenes of centro activity include musical performance,
dancing, and possession of mediums by the pantheon of Umbanda
spirits. Possessed mediums are shown in therapy sessions with
clients of these centers and interviews with mediums and devotees
explore the meaning of spiritual experience within Umbanda.
Creator: Madeleine Richeport, anthropologist

SA-91.7.1: THE HOAX
1932; 302 ft (11 min) sound b&w; video
Edited film produced by the Matto Grosso Expedition in Brazil.
Film centers on the story of a young Bororo boy, who one day will
be chief, preparing for and going on a hunt. He is shown speaking
with an elder, feeding his pet otters, leaving for the hunt
riding a tapir, and unsuccessfully hunting with bow and arrows.
He comes across a dead iguana which he shoots in order to bring
back to the village as game that he has killed. However, the
village men know from the smell of the dead animal that a hoax
has been played on them.

SA-91.18.23: YANOMAMO OF THE ORINOCO*
1987; 29 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1,5,6
Edited film is a compilation of footage from the 1971 Yanomamo
film project and additional footage of the Yanomamo of the Amazon
Basin of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil between the Negro
and the Upper Orinoco rivers. The Yanomamo demonstrate slash and
burn techniques, how they organize planting a garden, and
preparation of foods such as mashed bananas while out in the
field. Young girls are seen grooming one another while young boys
learn to shoot arrows. Paint made from the charcoal of burnt wood
is used by the men to decorate themselves.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )

SA-91.18.24: YANOMAMO: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY*
c. 1968; 60 min sound color; video; supplementary materials:
1,5,6
Edited film documenting an American expedition into the Amazon
Basin of Venezuela to perform various medical studies on the
Yanomamo. Geneticists are seen taking height and weight
measurements, various samples, and administering vaccinations in
order to stop a measles epidemic. Project from which the film was
made was funded by U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of
Biology and Medicine; National Institutes of Health; and National
Science Foundation.
Creator: Timothy Asch, ethnographic filmmaker (1932-1994)
Creator: Napoleon Chagnon, anthropologist (1938- )
Creator: James V. Neel, geneticist

SA-91.20.10: THE ANDES
1974; 2,944 ft (83 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,2,3
Edited film documents travel in the Andes, South America. Film
includes scenes of Caracas, Venezuela and surrounding area; Angel
Falls; aerial views of the Andes including the volcano
Chimboraza; Quito, Ecuador including influence of oil production
and the Indian artist and sculptor, Oswaldo Quayasamin; the
equator; Pan American highway; Otavalo Indian country; Indian
market; Valley of the Volcanoes; Cuenca, Ecuador including market
day and making and selling of Panama hats; Gualaceo Village,
Ecuador including pottery market, furniture making, dying of
fabric, embroidering, jewelry making, and decorating ceramics;
Cuzco, Peru; Incan fortress of Sacsahuaman; Village of Pisac and
Iquitos, Peru; Yagua Indians; and Punta Arenas, Chile.
Creator: Thayer Soule, travel-lecturer

SA-91.21.1: [Ndjuka, c. 1928]
c. 1928; 1,572 ft (54 min) silent b&w; video
Footage shot in Dutch Guyana (Suriname) along the Tapanahoni
River near the confluence with Lawa River. Footage includes:
poling up the river, village of Dreetabiku (south of the
confluence), men 'punting' canoes upstream, and man carving large
bowl. Cultural and material sampling of Ndjuka maroon life
includes: braiding hair; clearing gardens and planting cassava;
straining cassava; libations poured on gournd with three men
apparently taking 'snuff'; man playing a very large drum; drum
pegged and with a raffia 'skirt'; apinti drum; women dancing; men
poisng with paddles and gun; woman with scarification on stomach,
back, and buttocks; flotilla of canoes; Ndjuka with visiting
indians; and man heading a drum.
Creator: Morton C. Kahn, epidemiologist (1896-1959)

SA-91.21.9: PRIMITIVE PEOPLES OF THE MATTO GROSSO
c. 1955; 576 ft (16 min) sound b&w; video
Edited film records a University Museum expedition (University of
Pennsylvania) to Paraguay and Xingu rivers in Brazil. Footage
includes Carib, Trumai, Tupi, Arawok, Tapuya, and other
settlements along rivers; house building; weaving; making manioc
bread; puberty ceremony dance; and artifacts from the region in
the Museum's collections. Film is narrated by Lowell Thomas.
Creator: Ted Nemith

SA-92.4.1: [Afro-Brazilian Video Project: Maranhao, Northern
Brazil, 1991]
1991; 50 hrs sound color; video; supplementary materials: 4
Full video record of Afro-Brazilian traditions from Maranhao,
Brazil. Documentation includes: chanting, drumming, and trance-
possession dancing in the Tambor de Mina tradition in Sao Luis,
the capital city of the northern Brazilian state of Maranhao. The
rituals of this tradition exhibit some similarities with other
more well-known Afro-Brazilian religions such as Candomble and
Umbanda. 'Mina' traditions derive their distinctiveness from
prominent Dahomean (Vodun) as well as Amerindian and European
influences. Featured is extensive footage of the oldest and most
traditionally African "houses" in Sao Luis (for example, the
Dahomean or 'Gege' Casa das Minas, the Casa de Nago, and Casa da
Turquia), as well as the numerous Tambor de Mina (both 'Mata' and
Spiritist influenced) terreiros (ritual centers) in the city. The
collection documents the vibrant diversity of form and practice
which exists among different terreiros including some in the
interior of Sao Luis Island and in the interior Maranhao town of
Codo. Documentation also includes footage of popular folk dances
and celebrations such as the Bumba-Meu Boi tradition, Carnaval,
'Bloco-Afro' groups, and an imported version of Candomble.
Creator: Daniel Halperin, anthropologist (1957- )

SA-92.11.1: EDUARDO THE HEALER*
1978; 1,180 ft sound color; film
Edited film documents the life story of Peruvian, Eduardo
Calderon, a fisherman, sculptor, and curandero (healer) in
northern Peru. He is filmed with his teacher, assistants, and a
woman selling herbal remedies and hallucinogenic cactus. He is
shown conducting and explaining a curing ceremony and discussing
the important cultural relation that his curing has with the pre-
Columbian civilization. See also full film record, Eduardo the
Shaman: A Case Study of Culture and Hallucinogens, from which
this film was produced.
Creator: Richard Cowan, filmmaker
Creator: Douglas Sharon, anthropologist (1943- )

SA-93.20.3: Q'EROS: THE SHAPE OF SURVIVAL
1979; 1,908 ft sound color
Edited film depicts the way of life among the Q'eros Indians of
Peru who have lived in the Andes for more than 2,000 years. Film
presents Q'eros music in its religious and shepherding functions
and shows weaving as an elemental part of everyday life. Footage
also includes scenes of farming, herding, and playing music.
Creator: John Cohen, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

SA-93.20.4: PERUVIAN WEAVING
1980; 900 ft sound color
Edited film examines the ancient Andean Indian tradition of warp
pattern weaving in Peru. Footage features detailed demonstrations
of the weaving technique on back-strap and four-stake looms and
includes an interview with Dr. Junius Bird from the American
Museum of Natural History.
Creator: John Cohen, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

SA-93.20.11: CHOQUELA: ONLY INTERPRETATION
1987; 432 ft sound color
Edited film presents the Choquela ceremony, a traditional oral
song cycle of the Peruvian Aymara Indians with interpretation by
the Aymaras and by outsiders. The contrasting interpretations
illustrate the dilemma between anthropology and self
representation.
Creator: John Cohen, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

SA-93.20.13: CARNIVAL IN Q'EROS
1991; 1,152 ft sound color
Edited film documents the Carnival celebrations of a remote
community of Q'eros Indians in the Peruvian Andes. The Q'eros
play pincullus (flutes) and sing to their alpacas to promote
fertility. Singing and playing separately from each other, they
produce a distinctive heterophonic sound which exemplifies a key
connection between Andean culture and that of the Amazon jungle.
Film also records negotiations between the filmmaker and the
Q'eros for compensation for their participation and the
distribution of that compensation.
Creator: John Cohen, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

SA-93.20.14: DANCING WITH THE INCAS
1992; 2,088 ft sound color
Edited film documents Huayno music, the most popular music of the
Andes, and the lives of three Huayno musicians. Although Huayno
music is played by various groups on all types of instruments in
urban Peru, one still hears authentic Inca melodies.
Creator: John Cohen, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

SA-93.24.2: LATIN AMERICA, PART I: ITS COUNTRIES*
1963; 950 ft sound color; film
Edited film produced by the National Film Board of Canada
presents short portraits of Latin American countries including:
Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia,
Chile, and cities in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay with
emphasis on principal exports. Highlights include: Aymara Indians
in Bolivia; oil rigs on Lake Maricaibo, Venezuela; mining and
pastoral scenes in coastal Chile; Mennonite farms in Paraguay;
gauchos in Argentina; Brazilian indigenous peoples; panning for
gold and diamonds in Brazil's inland rivers; and Brasilia,
Brazil.
Creator: James Beveridge, film producer

SA-93.24.5: BRAZIL: VANISHING NEGRO*
1965; 1,085 ft sound b&w; film
Edited film relates ways in which the experience of the Brazilian
Negro differs from that of the American Negro. Footage shows
Brazil at Carnival, the port city of Salvador, and Afro-Brazilian
religious ceremonies. Brazilians are presented discussing the
significance of Brazil's "racial democracy."

SA-93.24.16: NATION BUILDING*
1971; 730 ft sound b&w; film
Edited film presents key economic strategies of the newly
independent country of Guyana including the concept of "self-
help," using all volunteer labor, encouragement of cooperative
industries, and nationalization of the bauxite mining industry.
Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham discusses his hopes to
decrease unemployment and stimulate foreign trade as well as
local agricultural and industrial development. Interviewed are
other Guyanese who are involved in development projects including
building a cooperative market, enlarging a government school, mud
brick industry, and a recently nationalized bauxite plant.

SA-93.24.25: LATIN AMERICA, PART II: ITS HISTORY, ECONOMY AND
POLITICS*
1963; 1,170 ft sound b&w; film
Edited film presents brief histories of various Latin American
countries beginning with Columbus' discovery of the New World.
Focus is on the political vacuum left by Spain after 300 years of
autocratic rule, the role of the Catholic church, the disparity
between the rich and poor, and the backwardness of the
countryside in contrast to the power and modernity of the cities.
Mexico is singled out as a success story with its literacy
campaign and land reform projects. Scenes include: ritual dance
by the Aymara in Bolivia; pagan rites conducted on church steps
in Guatemala; political rally in Buenos Aires, Brazil; election
in Brazil; and centennial celebration in Mexico.
Creator: James Beveridge, film producer

SA-94.1.1: PARIMA: FRONTIERAS DO BRASIL*
c. 1940s; 24 min silent b&w; video
Edited film of a border patrol expedition to the mountainous
region along the northern border of Brazil known as Parima. Film
includes scenes of the steamship going up the Oiapoque River
which divides French Guiana from Brazil; Santo Antonio Village
and military outpost; encounters with Saramaka people; Saint
Georges, French Guiana; Clevelandia, a colonial agricultural
outpost in Brazil; travel by canoe; river area inhabitants spear
fishing and gathering fruit; Amapa Village; and traveling up the
Amazon River to the Rio Negro and then to the Rio Mar (Rio
Branco).
Creator: Thomas Reis, Brazilian army major

SA-94.1.2: MERURI*
c. 1940s; 7 min sound b&w; video
Edited film documents an aeronautical expedition to the Mato
Grosso of Brazil. Expedition members are met by Salesian priest
Pache Cobalcine who had been living in the area for nearly 50
years. Scenes include: mission school with Indian children;
village welcoming expedition with marching, flag waving, and
display of calisthenetics by school children; and members
distributing pots, pans, jewelry, and cigars to Indians who
return gifts of feather regalia and native crafts.
Creator: Raymundo Aboin, Brazilian army brigadier

SA-94.1.3: [Aymara Village Fictional Film, c. 1989]*
c. 1989; 28 min sound color; video
Edited film is a fictional story concerning an Aymara village in
the highlands of Bolivia which uses the local population as
actors. Story invovles a protest against the illegal transport
and sale of the sacred Aymara q'epis to Western collectors.
Creator: Eduardo Lopez Zavala

SA-94.1.4: OS INDIOS "URUBUS"*
c. 1950s; 27 min silent b&w; video
Edited film documents daily life among the Urubu Indians of
northeast Brazil. Scenes include: bringing water to village,
making a fire, man sharpening spear, weaving baskets and cloth,
making mats, making arrows, body painting, and food gathering and
preparation.
Creator: Heinz Foerthmann

SA-94.1.5: CALAPALO*
c. 1940s; 11 min sound b&w; video
Edited film documents a trip to a Kalapalo Indian village in the
Mato Grosso region of Brazil. Scenes include: village setting,
Indians posing for camera, women making fried cakes and splitting
palm fronds, men dancing, and chief in full regalia with body
painted.
Creator: Nilo Oliveira Vellozo

SA-94.6.1: [Hamilton Rice Seventh Expedition to the Amazon
Footage, 1924-1925]
1924-1925; 2,600 ft silent b&w; supplementary materials: 1
Footage taken during the Hamilton Rice Seventh Expedition to the
Amazon (Brazil) which was conducted in conjunction with the
Department of Tropical Medicine of Harvard University. The
expedition was undertaken primarily for geographical exploration
and medical investigation. Specific locations include Manaus, Rio
Negro; Boa Vista; Serra do Parima; and Rio Branco (Roraima).
Tribal groups encountered include: Shirianes, Maiongongs, and
Xirixanes.
Creator: Silvino Santos, photographer

SA-94.8.2: JUNGLE TERROR (outtakes)
1945; 3,000 ft silent color
Outtakes from edited film documenting an expedition which
traveled inland from St. Laurent, French Guiana to the Tumac
Humac Mountains of the Brazilian border. Expedition visited
Devil's Island and other penal islands off Cayenne and traveled
inland along the Maroni River. Tribal groups encountered were the
Boni (descendants of African slaves) and Roucouyenne (indigenous
American Indians).
Creator: Hassoldt Davis, explorer (1907-1959)

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