National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives


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Guide to the Collections
of the Human Studies Film Archives

Africa

AF-77.1.1: [Herskovits' Film Study of West Africa, 1931]
1931; 1,900 ft (71 min) silent b&w; film/video
Footage shot during fieldwork in Dahomey (Benin), Nigeria, and
the Gold Coast (Ghana). Documentation of Yoruba, Hausa, Ashanti,
and Dahomean culture includes: elegbara dancers and an Igun
(Egungun) ceremony in Abeokuta, Nigeria; Hausa drummers and
praise singers of the Emir of Kano, Nigeria; court scenes and
Kwasidei ceremony in Asokore (Gold Coast) honoring a chief's
ancestors; market scenes in Abomey, Dahomey; a dokpwe (communal
work group); Dahomean chief with wives and praise singers; legba
dancers and drummers and Nesuhwe ceremony honoring ancestors; and
various subsistence and craft activities including iron-forging,
brasswork, woodcarving, weaving, hoeing and planting.
Creator: Melville J. Herskovits, anthropologist (1895-1963)

AF-77.1.5: [Herskovits Film Study of West Africa, 1931]
(outtakes)
1931; 41 ft (2 min) silent b&w; video
Footage is fragments of scenes including carving, metalworking,
women on market day, and dances. See also entry for complete film
study.
Creator: Melville J. Herskovits, anthropologist (1895-1963)

AF-77.2.1: Healing Ritual of the Twelve Apostles Church of Ghana,
1975
1975; 2,000 ft silent color; film; supplementary materials: 1,4
Full film record of a weekly ritual performed every Friday in
several hundred churches throughout Ghana. This church--known as
the Church of the Twelves Apostles in Ghana and the Harrist
Church in Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire)--is a modern African
religious movement begun in 1913 by Liberian prophet William Wade
Harris. Although Harris was an educated African who baptized in
the name of the Holy Spirit, many of his followers were
traditional healers and herbalists who continued to experience
possession by ancestral spirits and dieties. Footage documents
the blending of indigenous African and Christian elements in
church services. Depicted is sunsum edwuma (healing or spiritual
work) of prophets and prophetesses in an Elmina church. These
adepts diagnose patients based on interrogation of the spirits
which possess them during services.
Creator: Martha Breidenbach, anthropology graduate student

AF-78.2.1: MARAGOLI (outtakes)
1976; 35,500 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials: 3,5,6
Outtakes from the edited film document the problems of
development among the Luhya people (and the Maragoli clan in
particular) with attention to the social and economic dimensions
of overpopulation in the Maragoli Hills of western Kenya.
Extensive interviews and images document the villagers'
understandings about land scarcity, overpopulation, and
migration; their attitudes about family size and child-rearing;
and their ideas concerning fertility and reproduction. Footage
includes scenes of agricultural activity, housebuilding, pottery
making, religious activities, and marketing.
Creator: Sandra Nichols, documentary filmmaker

AF-79.1.1: Austrian Motorcycle Expedition Through Africa,
Capetown to Cairo, 1935-1936
1935-1936; 1,350 ft silent b&w; film; supplementary materials:
3,4
Edited film of a motorcycle expedition by six Austrians who
traversed Africa from October 1935 to March 1936. Footage
documents the rigors of overland travel on motorcycle as well as
encounters with three tribal groups: Zulu in South Africa, Kikuyu
in Kenya, and Latuka in the Sudan. Film includes ceremonial dance
at a Zulu wedding, Zulu homesteads, and activities around a
mission school; Kikuyu women on the way to market and in a market
and distinctive ear ornamentation worn by these women; and Latuka
homesteads and kraals. Also included are shots of Victoria Falls,
expedition members with African bearers climbing Mt. Kilamanjaro,
crossing the Nubian Desert, and logistics of setting up a mobile
camp.
Creator: Josef Bohmer, filmmaker (1905- )

AF-82.1.1: [Frederick Wulsin's Travel Footage of Africa, c. 1927]
c. 1927; 1,989 ft silent b&w; film
Footage shot on a journey from the White Nile in the Sudan, into
Uganda, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), and French Equitorial Africa
(Chad, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic). Footage includes:
traveling down the White Nile on a barge to Rejat, Sudan; the
upper Uele River in central Africa; colonial presence (native
bearers carrying Europeans and a group of Nuer or Dinka men being
marched by colonial authorities--probably a forced labor party);
a Catholic mission in Buta, Congo; a training station for
elephants; Pygmies performing a line dance; and an agricultural
fair at Gombari, Belgian Congo. Also included are various
processional scenes around Fort-Lamy, French Equitorial Africa
(Chad) showing Muslim chiefs and their retainers at the close of
Ramadan.
Creator: Frederick Wulsin, anthropologist (1891-1961)

AF-82.5.1: Logan African Expedition, Beloit College, Spring 1930
1930; 1,000 ft (58 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3,4,5,6
Edited film shot during the 1930 Beloit College/Logan Museum
archeological expedition to northern Algeria led by Alonzo Pond.
Footage includes: departure from Washington, D.C. and shipboard
activities on the USS France; passage through the Straits of
Gibraltar; street scenes in Canrobert, Algeria; excavations at
dig sites with Arab workers; Roman ruins at Kramica and Timgad;
Arab women washing clothes and drawing well water; the oasis and
town of El Kantara at the mouth of the Sahara; Arabs on camelback
near Biskra; scenes in Arab bazaar, French funeral with
horsedrawn hearse, and African (unidentified) street musicians in
Biskra; street scenes in Paris; return to New York on the USS
Leviathan; and scenes in Chicago.
Creator: Chuck Nash, archeology student

AF-82.5.2: [Logan African Expedition, 1930]
1930; 1,750 ft (64 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3,4,5,6
Footage shot on the 1930 Beloit College-Logan Museum
archeological expedition led by Alonzo Pond to northeastern
Algeria. Footage includes: street scenes in Kasbah, Algiers;
market scenes at Ain Beida; nomad caravans and Arabs on horseback
demonstrating riding skills; the oasis of El Kantara; the native
quarters of Biskra and Chauoui; Chauoui Berber women grinding
grain, milking sheep, churning butter in a goat skin, and making
pottery; and Kabyle Berber men and women engaged in various
domestic, agricultural, and craft activities. Also included are
various scenes of archeological excavations and camp life.
Creator: George L. Waite, photographer

AF-82.5.3: [Beloit College/Logan Museum Algerian Expeditions,
1925-1928]
1925-1928; 1,416 ft (51 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1,4,5,6
Footage and outtakes shot on the 1925, 1926, 1927 and 1928 Logan
Sahara expeditions led by Alonzo Pond for the Logan Museum in
cooperation with M. Maurice Reygasse, Administrator of Tebessa,
to conduct surveys and undertake archeological excavations of
mid-Aurignacian sites in northeastern Algeria. Scenes of
ethnographic and archeological interest include: Arabs at Ali
Basha engaged in various domestic and subsistence activities;
large crowds gathered at Bougie (Bejaia) in front of the mosque
praying at the close of Ramadan; archeological excavations at
Mechta el Arbi and, possibly, Tebessa, with workers digging and
sifting sand; and Dr. George Collie, director of the Logan
Museum, examining the sites. There is some footage of Pond and
Collie with their families visiting European potential and
working archeological sites including Wisternitz, Moravia
(Czechoslovakia) and Rocher de la Peine and Tuc d'Audoubert cave,
France. Footage also includes market scenes in Toudja and
Chateaudun du Rhumel, and countryside scenes around Toudja.

AF-82.5.4: SAHARAN TRAILS
1925-1926; 2,070 ft (76 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1,4
Edited film shot during the Franco-American Expedition to Algeria
which was sponsored jointly by the Logan Museum of Anthropology,
Beloit College, and the Algerian government. Led by Alonzo Pond,
Byron Khun de Prorok, and Maurice Reygasse, the expedition
traveled from Biskra to Tamanrasset and back in three specially
constructed Renault vehicles in October and November of 1925. The
expedition excavated both prehistoric and ancient Sahara
habitations and observed various Hoggar Tuareg. Film features
excavations on the ancient tombs near Tamanrasset (including the
tomb of Queen Tin-Hinan, ancestral mother of the Tuareg), French
colonial outposts, encounters with Tuareg chiefs, and a wrestling
match, a slave tent, and head shaving in a Tuareg camp.
Creator: Bradley Tyrrell, graduate student

AF-82.5.6: [Logan African Expedition, 1929]
1929; 400 ft (14 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary materials:
1,4
Footage shot of the Beloit College-Logan Museum archeological
expeditions to Algeria documents Berber pastoralism and animal
husbandry of sheep with related activities including milking
sheep, making butter in goatskin bag, harvesting wheat, grinding
wheat for making couscous, and carding, spinning, and weaving
wool. Activities take place in front of nomadic and sedentary
dwellings.

AF-82.5.8: RELIVING THE PAST: ALONZO POND AND THE 1930 LOGAN
AFRICAN EXPEDITION*
1986; 56 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1,3,5,6
Edited video combines contemporary and archival footage with
interviews of expedition leader Alonzo Pond to tell the story of
the 1930 Beloit College-Logan Museum archeological expedition to
Algeria. See also [Logan African Expedition, 1930].
Creator: Michael Tarabulski, graduate student

AF-82.11.1: STUDIES IN NIGERIAN DANCE, NO. 1*
c. 1966; 400 ft (11 min) sound b&w; video
Edited film documents three variations of icough, a dance style
which, at the time of filming, was popular among women's dance
ensembles of southern Tiv country. Icough dances are performed at
marriage ceremonies, for the entertainment of visitors, and on
important social occasions to enhance the prestige of those who
sponsor these performances. Such dance groups are also commonly
seen at the five-day markets in the villages surrounding Gboko
and Aliade, Nigeria. Shot in Gboko, the first dance is performed
by an ensemble from Mbahor village and the second and third
dances by an ensemble from Mbawon village. Whatever the variation
sequence of movements, the outstanding feature of icough dancing
is the sustained and controlled quality of the flow of movement
through the body as dancers pass through the basic positions of
the dance. Musical accompaniment is by an agbande drum ensemble.
Creator: Francis Speed, filmmaker (1918- )

AF-82.11.2: STUDIES IN NIGERIAN DANCE, NO. 2*
c. 1966; 400 ft (11 min) sound b&w; video
Edited film documents five male dances of the Irigwe people
living in the Miango Village area of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria.
Dancers wield fly wisks and adzes and the dances are performed to
drumming and song in both ring and marching formations. The
accompanying dance texts indicate that these dances were
traditionally an integral part of Irigwe agricultural festivals.
Creator: Francis Speed, filmmaker (1918- )

AF-83.1.1: African Hunting Trip-1930
1930; 1,345 ft (50 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 3,4
Footage shot during a hunting expedition to east Africa including
Uganda, Kenya, Egypt, and the Sudan. Footage includes: shipboard
ritual of "crossing the equator," passage through the Suez Canal,
a local ceremony staged for visitors by Acholi tribesmen, Kikuyu
dance, monumental Egyptian sculpture and architecture, and
various hunting activities and camps of the safari. A significant
feature of this safari footage is the stereotyped interactions of
dominance and subordination between African bearers and the
wazungu, the local term for Europeans.
Creator: Mortimer Fuller, businessman ( -1989)

AF-83.2.1: [Turkana Conversations Film Project, 1974]
1974; 38,485 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials: 1,3,5
Full film record of the Turkana pastoralists living in
northwestern Kenya from which the MacDougalls produced the
TURKANA CONVERSATIONS TRILOGY: LORANG'S WAY, THE WEDDING CAMELS,
and A WIFE AMONG WIVES. The distinguishing feature of these films
is the way in which the subjects of the films participate with
the filmmakers in defining the events in which they themselves
are involved. See also entries for the edited films.
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.2: A WIFE AMONG WIVES
1981; 2,562 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 3
Edited film from the 1974 film project about the semi-nomadic
Turkana pastoralists living in northwestern Kenya. The film
explores how the Turkana, especially Turkana women, view
marriage. The testimony of three sisters is presented followed by
the unfolding plans for a marriage in a neighboring homestead. In
the course of these plans an insider's view is communicated about
why a woman would want her husband to take a second wife and how
the system of polygyny can be a source of solidarity among women
and at the same time result in a disregard for the feelings of
individuals. See also [Turkana Conversations Film Project, 1974].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.3: LORANG'S WAY
1978; 2,410 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 3
Edited film from the 1974 film project about the semi-nomadic
Turkana pastoralists who live in the dry thorn country of
northwestern Kenya. The film follows Lorang, an elder and head of
a homestead who, unlike most Turkana, has spent time away from
home in the army and has gained insights on his own culture from
the outside. Through conversations with the filmmakers, the
testimony of his friends and relatives, and observations of his
behavior with male age-mates, wives, and children, the film
explores Lorang's personality and his reflections on the
vulnerability of and changes in his culture. See also [Turkana
Conversations Film Project, 1974].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.4: THE WEDDING CAMELS
1978; 3,900 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 3
Edited film from the 1974 film project about the semi-nomadic
Turkana pastoralists of northwestern Kenya. In Turkana society
herds mean security and wealth. This film explores the
relationships between wedding negotiations, dispersed kin groups
bound together by reciprocal livestock obligations, and the
significance of these marital alliances in a harsh environment.
The negotiations documented are between the kin groups of two
age-mates and old friends. Unfolding events reveal the delicate
balance between the economics of the domestic groups involved and
the self-respect and dignity of their principal representatives.
See also [Turkana Conversations Film Project, 1974].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.5: [Jie Film Project, 1968]
1968; 14,807 ft sound color/b&w; supplementary materials: 1,2,3,5
Outtakes from the film project about the Jie pastoralists of
Uganda from which ethnographic filmmakers David and Judith
MacDougall produced the edited films TO LIVE WITH HERDS, NAWI,
and UNDER THE MEN'S TREES. See also descriptions for edited
films.
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.6: NAWI
1970; 833 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 3
Edited film, from the 1968 film project about the Jie
pastoralists of Uganda, focuses on the dry-season movement of the
Jie to temporary camps in the western Karamoja District where
water and grazing are more abundant. Departure of the Jie and
their herds from their homesteads is followed and various aspects
of their life at the camp with emphasis on the care of lifestock
are shown. Several Jie herdsboys' songs are included. See also
[Jie Film Project, 1968].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.7: TO LIVE WITH HERDS
1973; 2,520 ft sound b&w; supplementary materials: 1,3,5,6
Edited film from the 1968 film project about the Jie pastoralists
of Uganda. The film examines the disruptive effects of nation-
building in pre-Amin Uganda on these semi-nomadic pastoralists,
shows daily life in a traditional Jie homestead during a
particularly harsh dry season, and explores the ways in which
government policies seem to exacerbate hardship and undermine
traditional Jie economic values. At the end of the film, Logoth,
the protector of the homestead, travels west to rejoin his herds
in an area of relative plenty where, for a time, the Jie appear
insulated from official interference. See also [Jie Film Project,
1968].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.2.8: UNDER THE MEN'S TREE
1974; 540 ft sound b&w; supplementary materials: 3
Edited film from the 1968 film project about the Jie pastoralists
of Uganda. Film depicts male sociability at a Jie cattle camp as
men gather under a special tree to converse, relax, sleep, or
work on leather goods. The particular focus of conversation in
this film centers on the European's most conspicuous possession--
the motor vehicle--and the relative worth of cars and men. See
also [Jie Film Project, 1968].
Creator: David MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1939- )
Creator: Judith MacDougall, ethnographic filmmaker (1938- )

AF-83.5.1: [Himba Research Film, 1972-1973]
1972-1973; 4,000 ft (1 hr 40 min) sound color/b&w; video;
supplementary materials: 1,3,5
Full film record of a research film project documenting the
Himba, a pastoral Bantu people of southwestern Angola and
northwestern Namibia. Footage features documentation of a
rainmaking ceremony with animal sacrifices to the ancestors and
the annointing of ombale stones (rain shrines), the tending of
cattle herds and the problems of drought, various musical
performances, a baby-naming ceremony, and techniques of female
hairdressing and braiding. Edited films THE HIMBA and HIMBA
WEDDING were produced from this project.
Creator: Gordon Gibson, anthropologist (1915- )

AF-83.5.2: THE HIMBA
1972; 1,000 ft (27 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3,5
Edited film of harvest time activities and marriage rites among
the Himba, a pastoral Bantu people of southwestern Angola and
northwestern Namibia. Film illustrates women's role in the
domestic economy of the Himba and the various stages in a
marriage ceremony. Film discusses stages in the seclusion of the
bride, the ceremonial strangulation and butchering of an ox by
Himba bachelors followed by a war dance and divination of the
ox's entrails, seclusion of the groom's party adjacent to the
village of bride's male relatives, the performance of onjongu
dances at the wedding ceremony, and the incorporation of the
bride into the village of her husband. Included are details on
male and female adornment specific to jural status.
Creator: Gordon Gibson, anthropologist (1915- )

AF-83.5.3: HIMBA WEDDING
1969; 1,200 ft (33 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 3
Edited film of wedding rites among the Himba, a pastoral Bantu
people of Kackoveld in Namibia. Film documents the taking of a
second wife by a Himba man and discusses the marriage in
connection with intervillage kinship relations, bridewealth, and
polygymy. Film includes: the adornment and ritualization
surrounding zacirwa (seclusion of the bride), customary
strangulation and butchering of a bridewealth ox and the reading
of its viscera, onjongu dancing by guests, ritual capture of the
bride by groom's age-mates, and ceremonial incorporation of the
bride into the homestead of her husband.
Creator: Gordon Gibson, anthropologist (1915- )

AF-83.5.4: [Zimba Research Film, 1971]
1971; 2,100 ft (58 min) sound color; film/video; supplementary
materials: 3,5,6
Full film record of a research film project documenting the
Zimba, a pastoral Bantu people of southwestern Angola. Footage
documents the organization of Zimba homesteads, role of women in
the domestic economy, and men engaged in pastoral activities.
Sequences include: women threshing, winnowing, and stamping
millet (for cereal and beer); milking cows; watering cattle;
weaving baskets; and making fences to protect their fields. Men
are shown churning milk and herding and watering cattle.

AF-83.5.5: [Kuvale Research Film, 1971]
1971; 1,200 ft (30 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 3,4,5
Full film record of a research film project documenting the
pastoralist Kuvale people of the Mocamedes Desert, Mbambi region,
southwestern Angola. Footage documents the organization of Kuvale
homesteads and styles of dress and adornment. Various leisure,
child-rearing, and domestic activities include: hairdressing,
women grinding grain and milking cows, men butchering animals,
and prepartion of meals.
Creator: Gordon Gibson, anthropologist (1915- )

AF-83.7.1: [Tangoma Graduation Ceremony, GeGe, Swaziland, 1981]
1981; 1,440 ft (52 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,2,3,4,5,6
Full film record documenting the rites of initiation and
graduation of tangoma, Swazi herbalists and spirit mediums who
are respected for their ability to communicate with ancestral
spirits. Tangoma (singular sangoma) provide information about
illness and misfortune and, through their training, heal with the
use of herbs and other traditional medicines. Footage includes:
session of all-night drumming, singing, and dancing in the chief
sangoma's homestead; processional dancing in the open compound;
interior shots of the sangoma's dwelling showing ritual
paraphernalia; test during which initiates must find a lost goat;
and ritual interrogations of the trainees by tangoma.

AF-83.7.2: [Tangoma Graduation Ceremony, Lomahasha, Swaziland,
1980]
1980; 5,400 ft (2 hrs 20 min) sound/silent color; video;
supplementary materials: 1,3,4,5,6
Full film record depicting the three-day initiation and
graduation rites of tangoma, Swazi diviners and herbalists who
are acknowledged for their ability to communicate with the
ancestors and to diagnose and treat illness. Footage includes:
scenes of an all-night session of singing, drumming, and dancing
in the chief sangoma's homestead; preparations of food, medicine,
and an altar; the consumption by initiates of food prepared with
medicine followed by ritual emesis; ritual interrogations of
candidates to test their divinatory powers; riverbank ceremony at
which initiates become possessed by ancestors; and final
processional dance of tangoma, graduates, and kinsmen.

AF-83.9.1: HERERO OF NGAMILAND
1953; 1,000 ft (28 min) sound color; video
Edited film about the Herero, a pastoral Bantu people located in
the northwest region of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (Botswana).
Film illustrates the importance of cattle in the everyday and
ritual life of the Herero and the gendered division of labor
associated with their herds. Film includes: homesteads and
subsistence activities, a Herero court convened to adjudicate a
clan dispute, and the prescribed mourning observances, social
rites, and inheritance of property following the death of a clan
headman. Also illustrated is the influence of 19th century German
missions on Herero dress.
Creator: Gordon Gibson, anthropologist (1915- )

AF-83.11.1: [Marshall !Kung Expedition I, 1950]
1950; 5,000 ft silent color/b&w; film; supplementary materials:
1,5
Full film record shot during a preliminary expedition to the
Kalahari Desert in Namibia sponsored by the Harvard Peabody
Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. Footage was shot
primarily in southern Angola south of the Kanini River among the
Bantu speaking Mehemba. Footage includes: dances of the Mehemba
and Naulila bands; San graves; making of a plaster San lifemask;
and wildlife including merle goats, kookoveld, springbok,
wildebeest, jackal, hyena, elephant, giraffe, and eland.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.2: [Marshall !Kung Expedition II, 1951]
1951; 21,000 ft silent color; film; supplementary materials: 3
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Nyae-Nyae
region of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia was sponsored by the
Harvard Peabody Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. Footage
documents: construction of a skerm (shelter) and setting-up of a
household, preparation and consumption of a springbok, hunting
and preparation of a small snake, and digging and eating of
roots. Technologies illustrated include: fire building, hide
preparation, subterranean storage of water in ostrich egg shells,
setting of a trap, and the entire bow-and-arrow manufacturing
process. Depicted are the arrangements of skerms within the werf
(encampment). Representations of !Kung rituals include scenes
from a wedding (used in the film N!AI: THE STORY OF A !KUNG
WOMAN), keloid scarification, and divining with oracle discs.
Also included is winnowing of tobacco by non-San people (possibly
Naulila) and activities of the Marshall expedition.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.3: [Marshall !Kung Expedition III, 1952-1953]
1952-1953; 80,000 ft silent color/b&w; film; supplementary
materials: 1,3,5
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Nyae-Nyae
region of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia was sponsored by the
Harvard Peabody Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. Footage
documents both the hunting and gathering lifeways of the !Kung
San as well as aspects of their historical association with
Herero and Tswana pastoralists. Locations include Gum, Kai/Kai,
and /Gautcha waterholes. Documentation on San subsistence
practices includes: gathering gum, baobob and palm fruit, and
mangetti nuts; digging ubee and =khoa water roots; picking oley
and !naa berries; collecting salt at a pan; and tracking,
shooting, butchering, and cooking large and small game (including
giraffe, eland, gemsbok, wildebeest, duiker, badger, warthog,
ostrich, tortoise, and python). Other footage documents:
technologies (netmaking and the manufacture of string, arrows,
and poison), distribution of meat and sociability around skerms
(shelter), divining with oracle discs, trance-dancing and curing,
nursing babies, making toy cars, "rolling" fire with firesticks,
playing musical instruments (one-string violin and //guashie),
and activities around waterholes. Also included is footage on the
Mutues, a Bantu-speaking people of Angola. The edited films THE
HUNTERS, WILDEBEEST, and !KUNG BUSHMAN HUNTING EQUIPMENT were
produced from this project.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.4: [Marshall !Kung Expedition IV, 1955]
1955; 45,000 ft silent/sound color; film; supplementary
materials: 5
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia was sponsored by the Harvard Peabody Museum and the
Smithsonian Institution. Footage documents the hunting-and-
gathering activities, domestic life, and music and dance of the
/Gwi San in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert.
Documentation includes: gathering mangetti nuts, digging for
poison grubs, gathering tsama melons and digging roots, setting
snares and hunting with bows and arrows in the veldt, squeezing
water from roots, sharing meat at the werft, collecting honey,
squeezing and drinking water from the stomach of large game,
technologies (arrowmaking, working skins, and making cord from
sansiveria leaves), sociability and ritual life (circle dance,
scarification of women, porcupine game, hyena intercourse game,
wrestling, storytelling, and music-making), and composing songs
on the musical bow (with resonator) and //guashie (harp). Also
included are various scenes around waterholes; San around
Bachkalahari kraals; interaction between Herero, San, and Bantu
peoples near police post and provision station; and various
scenes of the Marshall expedition. The edited film BITTER MELONS
was produced from this project.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.5: [Marshall !Kung Expedition V, 1956]
1956; 4,000 ft silent color; film; supplementary materials: 5
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Nyae-Nyae
region of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia was sponsored by the
Harvard Peabody Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. Footage
documents ambient life in the land of the !Kung San, featuring
large game, wild-fowl, and plant-life. Included are shots of gum
collection by San gatherers.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.6: [Marshall !Kung Expedition VI, 1957-1958]
1957-1958; 183,000 ft sound/silent color/b&w; partial film;
supplementary materials: 3,5
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Nyae-Nyae
region of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia. Locations include: the
plains south of !Nama, !Nama pan, !Kubi, and the area in and
around Gautcha. Subsistence activities documented include:
gathering mangetti nuts and tsi, eating kamako berries and mayeth
nuts, digging for roots, preparation of lamb, herding and milking
of cows, killing a puff adder, and hunting giraffe, hartebeest,
wildebeest, and lion. Technologies illustrated include: arrow-
making, stringing beads, preparation of hides, making a musical
bow, and working on thongs. Aspects of sociability, and daily and
ceremonial life include: male and female ornamentation; various
games (porcupine game, ball game, and djani bird toy); morning
dance and trance dancing; administration of medicine; and playing
musical instruments (including the musical bow, the one-stringed
violin, the //guashi [harp], and the harmonica). Also included is
footage of skerms (shelter), activities at Bantu sites (dancing,
pounding mealie-meal, grinding corn, and winnowing tobacco),
various wildlife, and activities of the Marshall expedition.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-83.11.8: [Marshall !Kung Expedition VIII, 1978]
1978; 150,000 ft sound color; film; supplementary materials: 3,5
Full film record shot during an expedition to the Nyae-Nyae
region of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia. Footage contains
interviews with N!ai, a !Kung woman, during which she discusses
childhood, marriage, menstruation, relationships, rituals, and
changes affecting !Kung culture that have occurred during her
life-time. Documentation of subsistence activities includes: a
giraffe hunt, children hunting wild rooster, bread making, eating
baobab fruit and honeycombs, and gathering grass. Aspects of
daily life and rituals include: trance-dancing and curing, a
tribal council, an Ovambo beer party, the ostrich game, dancing,
singing, and playing the thumb piano. Footage records trade with
a German film crew filming THE GODS MUST BE CRAZY and Afrikaner
soldiers. Also included are scenes and discussions concerning a
medical clinic and construction of a school house, a church
service, an interview with the Afrikaans minister, voter
registration, distribution of mealie-meal, hunting on horse-back,
and the screening of two films on the !Kung San: N'UM TCHAI and
THE HUNTERS. Footage from this expedition was used to make the
film N!AI, THE STORY OF A !KUNG WOMAN.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-84.19.6: THE NUER*
1970; 2,700 ft sound color; film
Edited film made among the eastern Nuer of Ethiopia, a Nilotic
cattle-herding people. The cinematic construction of the film
seeks to convey a holistic feel for Nuer lifeways, particularly
the intimacy between the Nuer and their cattle. Narration
provides anthropological accounts of such events as a dispute
over bridewealth, a ghost marriage, and a Nuer male initiation
ceremony in which two boys receive gar (forehead incisions). Also
included is a subtitled interview in which an old man offers his
own comments on Nuer life and customs.
Creator: George Breidenbach, filmmaker
Creator: Robert Gardner, ethnographic filmmaker
Creator: Hillary Harris, filmmaker

AF-85.1.1: [Imbalu Film Project, 1967]*
1967; 97 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 3
Video copy of full film record made in association with the
University of California, Los Angeles, Ethnographic Film Program
documenting a male initiation ceremony among the Gisu of the Mt.
Elgon region of eastern Uganda. Footage explores circumcision as
a central social institution which defines adult male identity
and the unity of the Gisu as a people. Footage includes:
discussions among kinsmen of the candidates' fitness, dancing and
drumming around the initiates' compounds, animal sacrifce and
divination by reading entrails to assess the propitiousness of
the event, brewing of millet beer for the ceremony, annointing of
initiates with beer yeast, and initiates' seclusion and
circumcision by a ritual specialist.
Creator: Richard Hawkins, filmmaker

AF-85.1.2: IMBALU*
1967; 61 min sound color; video
Edited film made in association with the University of
California, Los Angeles, Ethnographic Film Program documents a
male initiation ceremony among the Gisu of the Mt. Elgon region
of eastern Uganda. The story of Gisu circumcision emerges through
the narrative of two boys who announce their intention to undergo
the ordeal of circumcision together. Film provides insight into
circumcision as a central social institution which defines adult
male identity and the unity of the Gisu as a people. Film
includes: discussions among kinsmen of the candidates' fitness,
dancing and drumming around the initiates' compounds, animal
sacrifice and divination by reading entrails to assess the
propitiousness of the event, brewing of millet beer for the
ceremony, annointing of initiates with beer yeast, and initiates'
seclusion and circumcision by a ritual specialist.
Creator: Richard Hawkins, filmmaker

AF-85.3.1: SONS OF THE MOON (outtakes)
1984; 12,000 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 1,5,6
Outtakes from the edited film SONS OF THE MOON focuses on the
Ngas of Nigeria's Jos Plateau who believe that the moon governs
human events as well as the growth of crops. They schedule their
lives--including boys' rites of passage to manhood--accordingly.
Told from the point of view of an Ngas bard, the film traces the
moon's influence on Ngas life and thought through an entire
growing season.
Creator: Dierdre LaPin
Creator: Francis Speed, filmmaker (1918- )

AF-85.4.1: [Burnham Footage of Southern and Eastern Africa, 1929]
1929; 1,200 ft (35 min) silent b&w; video
Footage was shot in South Africa, Rhodesia, Zimbabwe, Zambia and
eastern Africa during a family trip. The film attempts to retrace
the 1893 trip of Frederick Russel Burnham when he served as a
scout for British mining interests. Geographical areas filmed
include: Capetown and Durban in South Africa, Bulawayo (the
principal town of Matabeleland) in Rhodesia, the ruins of Great
Zimbabwe, burial place of Cecil Rhodes, and Victoria Falls.
Footage also includes Zulu or Matabele miners performing communal
dances, mule and oxen trains from mines, Maasai tribesmen, and
rickshaw boys in urban South Africa.
Creator: Frederick Russel Burnham, explorer (1861-1947)

AF-85.11.1: SAVAGE SPLENDOR
1946-1947; 2,750 ft (63 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,3
Edited film, distributed by RKO Radio Pictures, was made in the
course of the Armand Denis-Lewis Cotlow African expedition in
1946 and purports to be the first color footage shot in Africa.
Following the adventures of a big game safari while on a
photographic and animal catching mission through the Belgian
Congo (Zaire) and Kenya, the film creates a panorama of the
peoples, wildlife, and landscapes of central Africa. Indigenous
peoples depicted include the Songo (Songomeno), Mbuti Pygmies of
the Ituri Forest, Enya, Fulani, Dan, Baule, Kuba, Mangbetu,
Tutsi, and Maasai. Encounters between the hunting party and
various groups of people along the route are filmic reenactments
and fabrications, replete with indigenous "celebrations," dances,
rituals, and hunting scenes. The filmmakers join up with big game
hunter Carr Hartley at his animal stockade in Rumuruti, Kenya, to
film the capture of a variety of animals destined for zoos around
the world. Animals depicted in the film include elephants, lions,
buffalo, hippopotami, giraffe, oryx, ostrich, antelope, aardvark,
grebe zebra, rhinoceros, pelicans, and vultures.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)
Creator: Armand Denis, explorer (1896-1971)

AF-85.11.2: ZANZABUKU
1954; 2,400 ft (83 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1
Edited film produced in association with Republic Pictures and
made in the course of the Lewis Cotlow Third African Expedition
in 1954 to Tanganyika (Tanzania), Uganda, Kenya, and the Belgian
Congo (Zaire). The film crew's eight month safari covered over
15,000 miles with the goal of filming a variety of African
animals. The expedition visits the animal stockade of Carr
Hartley in Rumuruti, Kenya and films the zoo-catching enterprise
while they rope and crate animals. The simulated hunt of a
leopard by Turkana men and the successful trapping of another
leopard by son of Carr Hartley becomes the filmic justification
for a fabricated African "celebration" attended by Turkana,
Maasai, and Kuria peoples. Ethnographic footage includes the
music, dances, ostrich plume headdresses, and ivory lip plugs of
the Turkana; the attire and jewelry of Maasai women; and dances
and rituals among the Kuria. Other indigenous people depicted in
the film include the Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri forest who
demonstrate the building of a liana bridge across a river and
"celebrate" its completion with music and dance. In Tanganyika
(Tanzania), the film crew joins another big game hunter,
Pellegrini, and films the capture of an elephant, a hippopotamus,
and a rhinoceros.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)

AF-85.11.3: VANISHING AFRICA
1969; 2,600 ft (72 min) sound color; video; supplementary
materials: 1
Edited film, used on lecture tours, is a compilation of footage
Cotlow shot to produce two earlier films on Africa, SAVAGE
SPLENDOR and ZANZABUKU, and additional footage shot on a third
expedition to Equatorial Africa in 1969. Ethnic groups depicted
include: Turkana, Maasai, Kuria, Tutsi, Bira, Fulani, Enya, Kuba,
Mangbetu, and Mbuti Pygmies. Much of the footage is devoted to
the animal catching adventures of Carr Hartley, a big game hunter
and world wide zoo supplier who maintains a stockade in Rumuruti,
Kenya.
Creator: Lewis Cotlow, explorer (1898-1987)

AF-86.11.8: [Ethel Freeman's Footage of Africa, 1949-1950]
1949-1950; 1,600 ft (40 min) silent color; video
Footage records a family trip from Capetown, South Africa,
through Uganda, Nyasaland (Malawi) and the Congo, to Cairo,
Egypt. Footage of ethnographic interest includes: street vendors
and rickshaw boys in Capetown, a Zulu wedding and a Zulu Zionist
congregation, Mbuti Pygmies at a temporary village camp in the
Ituri Forest, Tutsi dancers at a colonial outpost, and Maasai
herders in Kenya. Also included are: wildlife in Murchison Falls
National Park, the Kabaka royal tombs of the Baganda at Kasubi,
Lake Edward, Semwaki Valley, and the Ruwenzori Mountains in
Uganda; Sudan; Nile Valley; and Cairo. Other locations of
interest include: Table Mountain, Cape Town, Kruger National Park
in South Africa and Limbe and Blantyre, Nyasaland (Malawi).
Footage forms part of the E.C. Freeman papers in the National
Anthropological Archives.
Creator: Ethel Cutler Freeman, Smithsonian research associate
(1886-1972)

AF-87.1.1: North Africa Prehistory Expedition
1930; 756 ft (26 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary materials:
1,4
Film documents the University of Minnesota's participation in the
1930 Beloit College/Logan Museum archeological expedition to
Algeria. Included are shots of archeological digs with Arab and
Berber workmen. Archeologist Lloyd Wilford is shown excavating a
human skull.
Creator: A.E. Jenks, anthropologist (1869-1953)

AF-87.9.26: [Laura Boulton Film Collection: Africa, c. 1934]
c. 1934; 1,072 ft (40 min) silent b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1
Footage shot on two separate expeditions to west and central
Africa. Sites recorded included Dahomey (Benin) and Bamako,
Mopti, Sangha, Gao, and Timbuktu in French Sudan (Mali). Ethnic
groups include Bini, Chokwe, Dogon (Habbe), Malinke, Mbundu,
Moors, and Taureg. Documentation features the lost-wax bronze
casting technique (Dahomey); Malinke masks with musicians playing
the kora or bulon bata; Chokwe and Mbundu dance and games; a
Dogon market with shots around the Sangha countryside; various
Dogon masks including the kanaga and monkey masks; Dogon women
dancing with gourd "drums" and men dancing with yo domolo (staff
for ritual thief); and scenes of Timbuktu including "Moorish
soldiers" on camels outside the city and Tuareg men on horseback.
Also included are games and dance by women and children and an
elder musician playing cngare (curved xylophone) in Portuguese
West Africa (Angola).
Creator: Laura Boulton, musicologist (1899-1980)

AF-87.9.27: [Laura Boulton Film Collection: Africa, c. 1947]
c. 1947; 3,240 ft (90 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 1
Footage shot in South-West Africa (Namibia) as part of a
University of California expedition to Ovamboland and areas of
South Africa. Ethnic groups depicted include the Kuanyama Ambo
(Ovambo), San, and Herero. Documentation among the Ovambo
features scenes of the Efundula, an Ovambo girls' puberty
ceremony, including girls dancing in initiation costumes
consisting of "head nets," ofiti (ankle bracelets), and efungu
(dancing wands); close-ups of neophytes' ceremonial coiffure and
the omatela headdress (constructed from wire, fiber, and human
hair and wound into a five-peaked hat smeared with fat and red
ochre) worn by "ash girls"; peregrinations of initiates in a
labyrinthian kraal; and pairs of candidates pounding grain in
ground mortars with weighted pestles. Additional footage of the
Ovambo includes: men crafting woven roof for a hut, panoptic
scenes of lake and waterfalls, and men playing various musical
instruments including slit gongs and large double membrane drums.
Footage also includes scenes in Windhoek of Herero and Kalahari
San in European garb, San dancing (near Windhoek), and urban
(probably Zulu) dance performances in South Africa.
Creator: Laura Boulton, musicologist (1899-1980)

AF-87.9.28: [Laura Boulton Film Collection: Miscellaneous, c.
1947]
c. 1947; 551 ft (17 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 1
Footage of miscellaneous scenes including the countryside, Laura
Boulton drinking tea with a family, a rural settlement, a horse
race, and people lounging by a pool.
Creator: Laura Boulton, musicologist (1899-1980)

AF-87.16.2: THE MAN HUNTERS (outtakes)
1969; 60,000 ft sound color; supplementary materials: 1,3,5
Outtakes from an M-G-M documentary about the search for fossil
man. Scientists interviewed are Raymond Dart, Lewis and Richard
Leaky, Francois Bordes, Robert Broom, and P.V. Tobias.
Creator: Nicolas Noxon, documentary film producer
Creator: Irwin Rosten, documentary film producer

AF-88.3.1: TEMBO*
1951; 2,290 ft (1 hr 26 min) sound color; video
Edited film, distributed by RKO Radio Pictures, was shot during
an African safari and includes scenes of wildlife on the
Serengeti Plains and around Lake Tanganyika in Tanzania and
across the forest belt of northern Belgian Congo (Zaire). Scenes
of ethnographic interest include: encounters with local people
around Lake Tanganyika (identified as Ranguba), activities in a
Pygmy camp in the Ituri Forest including net hunting for small
deer and trading meat for arrowpoints with local villagers, and
encounters with a settlement of Burundi pastoralists (identified
as the Ngala).
Creator: Howard Hill, archer (1898?-1975)

AF-88.3.2: TEMBO (trailer)*
1951; 100 ft (4 min) sound color; video
Trailer for the film TEMBO, distributed by RKO Radio Pictures,
features highlights from the edited film where Hill encounters
various African tribal groups and animals. See also TEMBO.
Creator: Howard Hill, archer (1898?-1975)

AF-88.8.1: [Dances and Rituals of the Kingdom of Bafut and
Babanki, Cameroon, 1981-1983]
1981-1983; 50 hrs sound color; video
Full video record documents performances of a variety of dance
societies from the Kingdom of Bafut and the neighboring kingdom
of Babanki (Kedjum Keku) in the northwest province of Cameroon. A
prominent feature of Bafut political life, ownership of specific
dances by sub-chiefs and important nobles is a constituting
element of their political authority. The dances documented in
this collection include various parts of the Bafut annual ritual
cycle, command performances, and mortuary celebrations. Also
included is documentation over a three-year period (1981-1983) of
the Abin Lela Dance of the Flutes, the climactic moment of the
annual ritual cycle. This annual dance in Bafut marks the death
and rebirth of the year and serves as an essential act of Bafut
constitutional politics. Dance footage is accompanied by
selective recording of oral testimony.
Creator: Ronald K. Engard, anthropologist (1949- )

AF-88.16.7: THE MASAI
1929; 374 ft (14 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film produced by Pathe Science Series in cooperation with
Harvard University's Department of Anthropology. The film depicts
variations in the phenotype of the Maasai and illustrates facets
of their cultural ecology as a cattle herding people. Film
includes: subsistence activities such as milking and drawing
blood from cattle, women plastering habitations with cattle dung,
men in headruffs demonstrating styles of communal dance, and
contrasting forms of body ornamentation for men and women.

AF-89.9.6: [Animals in African Game Reserve, c. 1924]
c. 1924; 405 ft silent b&w; film
Edited film produced by Lasky Corporation for Paramount Pictures
shows wildlife on a reserve in British East Africa (Kenya).
Footage shows Grevy and common zebra drinking at waterholes,
ostrich, oryx, elands, kongoni, warthogs, baboons, impala,
giraffe, and a safari camp at night.

AF-89.9.7: MAJESTIC NATURE: AN AFRICAN TRAVEL FILM
c. 1925; 44 ft silent b&w; film
Incomplete edited film featuring landscapes, probably in southern
or eastern Africa. Two travelers are shown against the backdrop
of a deep valley and gorge.

AF-89.16.1: [E.C. Higbee African Travel Footage, 1929]
1929; 2,703 ft (2 hrs 3 min) silent b&w; video
Footage shot on the Raymond-Whitcomb Round Africa Cruise
beginning in French West Africa (Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast,
Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal) and ending in Egypt.
Locations visited include Dakar, Senegal; Freetown, Sierra Leone;
Durban, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Khartoum, Sudan; and Cairo,
Egypt. Film includes a wide range of subjects shot while
traveling by automobile, train, and riverboat. Documentation
features acrobatic dancers, snake handlers, and kassonke masked
dance performances in Dakar; Zulu "war dance" performed outside
Durban; rickshaw boys performing for tourists and Indian markets
and stalls in Durban; Nilotic people (probably Shilluk) along the
White Nile; Maasai; Kikuyu ceremony near Nairobi; market with
Arabs and East Indians; Bedouins with camels; monumental
architecture and sculpture in Egypt; Cairo bazaars; and the
Valley of the Kings.
Creator: Edwin Converse Higbee (1897-1977)

AF-89.16.2: [E.C. Higbee Africa Cuts, 1929]
1929; 2,348 ft (1 hr 49 min) silent b&w; video
Outtakes from footage shot on the Raymond-Whitcomb Round Africa
Cruise beginning in French West Africa (Benin, Guinea, Ivory
Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal) and ending in Egypt.
Creator: Edwin Converse Higbee (1897-1977)

AF-89.17.1: [Paul Travis African Travel Footage, 1927-1928]
1927-1928; 4,536 ft (2 hrs 6 min) silent b&w; video
Footage Travis shot while on sabbatical leave from the Cleveland
Institute of Art. Film documents his travels along the "Cape-to-
Cairo" route begun by Cecil Rhodes. Footage includes: street
scenes in Cape Town and indigenous dwellings along the South
African train route; street scenes in Mombassa, Kenya; Mt.
Kilamanjaro in Tanganyika (Tanzania); Hindu stone masons in
Nairobi, Kenya; scenes in the Kikuyu Native Reserve; a Lumbwa
harvest dance and Christmas service; Tutsi war dance at
Billingyama, Ruanda; Africans (probably Nyoro) poling canoes on
Lake Bunyonyi in Uganda; colonial labor parties on roadwork in
the Belgian Congo (Zaire); Mangbetu chief in feathered headdress
at Ekibondi Village; Pygmy dance sequences; Congo elephant farm
at Dungu, Belgian Congo; and street scenes and bazaars in Cairo,
Egypt.
Creator: Paul Travis, artist (1898-1975)

AF-89.19.1: YORUBA CRAFTS*
1950-1951; 400 ft (11 min) silent color; video
Edited film shot in Oyo, Nigeria during field research. This
visual record reflects Bascom's approach to the study of African
aesthetics, one which integrated an analysis of the social role,
status, and function of the artist with his/her individual style,
ideas, and technique. Footage records traditional Yoruba craft
techniques including pottery making, spinning cotton, dyeing
thread and cloth, weaving of ikat cloth on a men's loom, and
woodcarving. Also filmed is master Yoruba woodcarver, Duga of
Meko, carving and painting a ritual effigy of Shango.
Creator: William Bascom, anthropologist (1912- )

AF-89.22.21: DESERT CARAVAN*
1971; 437 ft sound color; film
Edited film produced by NBC News traces the steps of a young
boy's first caravan of salt laden camels crossing the Bilma Oasis
of the Sahara in eastern Niger and the hardships endured.

AF-89.22.23: EGYPTIAN VILLAGERS*
c. 1970s; 500 ft sound color; film
Edited film produced by the Institut fur Film und Bild is a 24
hour chronicle of a family in rural Egypt. Featured are
irrigation methods, cultivation of land, a village school,
preparation of the evening meal, and traditional music and dress.

AF-89.22.26: SOUTH EAST NUBA*
1982; 2,249 ft sound color; film
Edited film, produced by BBC Television, is a multi-level
documentary: an ethnographic study of the lives and traditions of
the Nuba, a look at how German film director Leni Riefenstahl
helped turn the Nuba into a tourist spectacle, and an examination
of the government's attempts to bring the Nuba into the 20th
century because of this tourism.

AF-89.22.28: THE HUNTERS*
1957; 2,500 ft sound color; film
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, was produced by the Peabody Museum Expedition which
was led by Laurence Marshall. Film is an in-depth look at the
hunting tactics of the !Kung people.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-90.1.2: WAY OF THE WODAABE*
1988; 28 min sound color; video
Edited film produced for the National Geographic Society Explorer
television series was shot in 1987 and shows Wodaabe life,
preparing for celebrations at the end of the rainy season, and
relations with American photographer Carol Beckwith who has lived
with and extensively photographed the Wodaabe. A pastoralist
people of the African Sahel, Niger, the Wodaabe are seen setting
up camp and performing gender divided labor according to strict
tribal taboos, drinking tea at the men's morning tea ceremony,
searching for a water hole, and sewing and doing bead work. Film
concludes with two dances which are performed at the end of the
rainy season--a celebration which had not been performed since
before the severe drought of 1985. Preparations for the dances
include elaborate face painting.
Creator: Kevin A. Peer, film producer

AF-90.1.4: JU JU MUSIC*
c. 1988; 20 min sound color; video
Edited film produced for National Geographic Society Explorer
television series explores Ju Ju music, particularly as played in
Lagos, Nigeria. Ju Ju musicians playing calabash rattle, drum,
guitar, and bottle are shown performing in various settings.
Influences originating in the New World, such as Latin drums and
English chamber music, are also shown and discussed.

AF-90.7.3: MOROCCO THE MYSTERIOUS
c. 1921; 360 ft silent b&w; film
Edited film is a World Travel Series film produced by Kineto
Company of America, Inc. Footage includes various street scenes
of the city Fez, Mechovar Gate, and Mosque of Moulaildris.

AF-90.7.11: THE WILD HEART OF AFRICA
1929; 2,765 ft silent b&w; film
Incomplete edited film documents the Walker-Arbuthnot African
Expedition. This hunting expedition was led by two Stanford
University graduates who traveled up the Nile to Luxor and Assuan
with stops at river villages; Omdurman, Sudan; and Lake Manyara
and Arusha (Tanzania). Scenes of ethnographic interest include:
hunting camp with local workers; tribal group, the Mbugwe, doing
a n'goma; Maasai visiting base camp; and a dance performance in a
baraza (courtyard). Live animals shown include: elephants,
ostriches, rhinoceros, eland, giraffe, hyena, and impalas.
Footage also includes capturing a lion cub, skinning a
hippotamus, butchering an elephant, and displaying hunting
trophies.
Creator: Cub Walker, Stanford University undergraduate

AF-90.10.5: TOMBS AND TEMPLES OF THE PHARAOHS
1929; 196 ft (8 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film, distributed by Kodak Cinegraph Films, includes the
following major Egyptian archeological sites: the Temple of
Rameses II and of the Queen at Abu-Simbel, Philae Temple, Luxor
Temple, Tomb of Tut-ankh-amen and Temple of Queen Hatsepus,
Rameses Temple at Medinet-Habu, and Pillar Hall.

AF-90.10.9: THE PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX
1929; 197 ft (8 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film distributed by Kodak Cinegraph Films (courtesy of
American Export Lines), was shot in Egypt. Film shows tourists
travelling by camel to the pyramids and climbing the Great
Pyramid.

AF-90.10.10: CAIRO
1929; 97 ft (4 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film, distributed by Kodak Cinegraph Films, shows views of
the Citadel and Alabaster mosques, Muski bazaar, and the National
Museum in Cairo, Egypt.

AF-90.10.14: MARRAKESH, MOROCCO
1929; 97 ft (4 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film, distributed by Kodak Cinegraph Films (courtesy of
American Export Lines), was shot in and around Marrakesh,
Morocco. Film shows street scenes; bazaar activities such as
leather working, making dyes for silk, and a scribe; and
harvesting of olives.

AF-90.10.15: TUNIS AND CARTHAGE
1929; 97 ft (4 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film, distributed by Kodak Cinegraph Films (courtesy of
American Export Lines), was shot in Tunis and Carthage, Tunisia.
Shown are views of back streets and a bazaar, architecture of
mosques, a blind beggar, a coppersmith, John Howard Payne's
grave, an electric train, and ruins.

AF-90.21.1: [Native Life in West Africa, c. 1928]
c. 1928; 1,980 ft (55 min) silent b&w; video
Footage shot in the Yoruba town of Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Mrs.
Anders, who worked as supervisor of native nurses in the local
hospital, filmed various aspects of daily life including farming,
weaving, pottery making, and food preparation. Footage includes
scenes of masked dance ceremonies featuring different types of
egungun (masked dances), the local chief of the town on his
throne receiving obeisance from male subjects, and hospital
patients with leprosy.
Creator: Carolyn Loring Anders, nurse

AF-91.3.1: ETHIOPIAN JUBILEE
1955; 710 ft (20 min) silent color; video
Edited film, shot in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, documents the 25th
anniversary of the coronation of His Imperial Majesty Emperor
Haile Selassie I. Film includes shots in the Church of St.
Mary's, an address by Selassie to the Ethiopian Parliament, the
reception of international dignitaries, and processions in the
streets of Addis Ababa.
Creator: Edward C. Sweeney, explorer and businessman

AF-91.7.2: [Hunting in Africa, c. 1955]
c. 1955; 814 ft (32 min) silent color/b&w; video
Footage of unknown origin is of a safari. Footage includes: on
board ship en route to Africa; hunters posing with their
trophies; skinning and butchering an elephant; and rhinoceros,
warthogs, water buffalos, lions, and ostriches.

AF-91.13.1: [Ik Film Study, 1964-1965]
1964-1965; 3,439 ft (1 hr 36 min) silent color; film/video;
supplementary materials: 4
Footage shot among the Ik, a formerly nomadic hunting and
gathering people of northeast Uganda. Footage documents the
fragmentation of Ik life caused by drought and displacement from
their traditional hunting territory. Included are: ecology and
terrain of the Ik homeland, life around homesteads, relocation of
a homestead, cultivation of rocky mountainsides with hoes and
digging sticks, last ritual priest of the Ik divining with
sandals, calabash carving, Ik men making spears and headrests,
interactions between Ik and Turkana around cattle, and butchering
a cow.
Creator: Joseph Towles, anthropologist (1937-1988)
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.2: [Ik Film Study, 1964-1965: Edited Version]
1964-1965; 2,103 ft (58 min) sound color; video
Edited film shot among the Ik, a formerly nomadic hunting and
gathering people of northeast Uganda. Film depicts the
fragmentation of Ik life caused by drought and displacement from
their traditional hunting territory. Footage includes: Ik
homesteads, woman carving a calabash and churning milk, scenes of
agricultural practices, and interactions with the pastoralist
Turkana with whom the Ik traditionally had relations as both
part-time cattle herders and raiders.
Creator: Joseph Towles, anthropologist (1937-1988)
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.3: [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1954]
1954; 3,870 ft (1 hr 48 min) silent color; film/video;
supplementary materials: 1,4
Footage shot among the Mbuti of the Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo
(Zaire). Footage includes documentation of both subsistence and
ritual activities in forest and village contexts. Sequences
include: a Pygmy forest camp, construction of domed leaf houses,
barkcloth manufacture, hunting forest deer with nets, collection
of honey, and Pygmy boys at play in a tree swing. Sequences of
ritual include: an elima camp on the banks of the Epulu River for
a month-long seclusion of pubescent Mbuti girls, the elima ritual
held for the initiation of girls, and a village wedding ceremony.
Bride is shown being rubbed with oil, carried on a palanquin into
the village, and regaled by dancers. Documentation focuses
prominently on the nature of social relations between Ndaka
(Bantu) villagers and the nomadic Mbuti forest dwellers.
Creator: Frances Chapman, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
cameraman
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.4: [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1954: Edited Version]
1954; 2,507 ft (70 min) silent color; film/video; supplementary
materials: 1,4
Edited film shot among the Mbuti of the Ituri Forest, Belgian
Congo (Zaire), and the Ndaka (Bantu) villagers with whom they
maintain economic and ritual relations. Documentation focuses
primarily on the phases of the Nkumbi village initiation of young
Pygmy and village boys. Nkumbi--meaning "to share the blood"--
reflects one aspect of a flexible relationship between Mbuti and
Bantu villagers whereby Pygmy bands experience periodic respite
from the rigors of nomadic forest life. Film sequences detail the
separation of boys in the Nkumbi camp, ritual flogging and
hazing, and training in the keefa (raffia skirt) dances. Liminal
status of the initiates is shown by their daily covering with
white pempa clay, symbolic of their social death, and being led
to the circumcision of initiates by a village "doctor." The
burning of the Nkumbi camp is followed by the enclosure and
rebirth of the initiates from a banana leaf "womb." During this
phase the new public status of the initiates is recognized as
they are danced through the Ndaka village of Epulu led by a
ritual doctor in a leopard mask. Boys are shown being marked with
the bengafi scars around chest and ribs which identify jural
males who have "shared the blood." The final reincorporation of
the initiates is marked as boys are washed in the river, covered
with palm oil (a village symbol of wealth), and led in procession
to the center of the village where they dance on stools to
symbolize their status as sexually active adults. See also
[Joseph Towles Zaire Film Study: Nkumbi and Elima Initiations:
Mbuti, Bandaka and BaBira, 1970-1972], [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study,
1971-1972], and [Mbuti Pygmy Footage: Forest Camp, Bira and
Ngwana Villages, and Station de Chasse, 1954].
Creator: Frances Chapman, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
cameraman
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.5: [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1971-1972]
1971-1972; 3,059 ft (85 min) silent color; film/video;
supplementary materials: 1,4
Footage shot in and around the Ndaka (Bantu) village of Epulu,
Ituri Forest in northeast Zaire. Footage documents various
aspects of village subsistence and the initiation rituals which
bring villagers and the Mbuti Pygmies into contact. Sequences
include house types, harvesting and pounding rice, activities
around a local market, and digging and kneading clay for use in
house construction. Documentation of a village initiation
features the first Nkumbi circumcision ceremony held in this area
of the Ituri since the Simba Revolt. Included are the Nkumbi
camp, training of initiates, masked Nkumbi dancers, initiates in
line dance, and an initiate's head being shaved. Also included is
a flag-raising ceremony at a nearby government post commemorating
Zairean independence. See also [Joseph Towles Zaire Film Study:
Nkumbi and Elima Initiations: Mbuti, Bandaka, and BaBira, 1970-
1972], [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1954: Edited Version], and [Mbuti
Pygmy Footage: Forest Camp, Bira and Ngwana Villages, and Station
de Chasse, 1954].
Creator: Joseph Towles, anthropologist (1937-1988)
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.6: [Mbuti Pygmy Footage: Forest Camp, Bira and Ngwana
Villages, and Station de Chasse, 1954]
1954; 677 ft silent b&w; video; supplementary materials: 1,4
Footage shot in the Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo (Zaire). Footage
includes: Pgymy camp life near an Ndaka village; Nkumbi initiates
in the Ngwana village of Musafu (later destroyed during the Simba
Revolt) and the Bira village of Eboyo; and Station de Chasse on
the Epulu River organized for capturing elephants and okapis and
training elephants. See also [Joseph Towles Zaire Film Study:
Nkumbi and Elimina Initiations: Mbuti, Bandaka and BaBira, 1970-
1972], [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1954: Edited Version], and [Mbuti
Pygmy Film Study, 1971-1972].
Creator: Frances Chapman, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
cameraman
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.7: [Mbuti Pygmy Edited Segment, c. 1961]
c. 1961; 183 ft (6 min) sound b&w; video; supplementary
materials: 1,4
Edited film segment produced for unknown use from footage shot in
1954 among the Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo
(Zaire). Included are scenes of a Pygmy camp, domestic life,
hunting with nets, collecting honey, and a wedding ceremony.
Creator: Frances Chapman, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
cameraman
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.8: [Algiers, Algeria, 1954]
1954; 101 ft (4 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 4
Footage which was shot as a test roll of street scenes in Algiers
includes a city square and apartment houses on the waterfront.
Creator: Frances Chapman, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
cameraman
Creator: Colin Turnbull, anthropologist (1925-1994)

AF-91.13.9: [Gold Coast, 1954]
1954; 441 ft (12 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 4
Footage shot in Accra, Gold Coast (Ghana) depicts domestic life
in an extended family compound of an important chief of the Kwahu
who was an important supporter of Kwame Nkrumah. Shots include:
boys playing soccer, a seated circle game, and board game;
washing clothes and ironing with coal heated iron; food
preparation and cooking; nursing; children bathing; and sweeping
compound. Additional footage shot in Ghana contains a rally in
Black Star Square with Kwame Nkrumah and a market. Non-Ghana
footage includes shipping port in Canada and Bedouin camp and
market in North Africa.

AF-91.13.10: The Gold Coast
c. 1954; 167 ft (5 min) silent b&w; video
Footage shot in Accra, Gold Coast (Ghana) depicts domestic life
in a family compound, food preparation and meals, and, of
historic interest, shots of Kwame Nkrumah at various political
rallies.

AF-91.13.11: CIVILIZATION ON TRIAL IN SOUTH AFRICA
c. 1950; 846 ft (24 min) sound b&w; video
Edited film was shot sometime between 1946 and 1952 (prior to
implementation of the Group Areas Act). Reverend Scott, a
campaigner for human rights, secretly documented appalling and
oppressive conditions for the majority African and colored
(Indian) population of South Africa with the intent of generating
international support for their plight. Opening panoptic shots of
Johannesburg and "the civilization intended for whites only" are
contrasted with shots of township areas and government housing.
Visual documentation of the color bar and its social and economic
impact includes overcrowding, lack of public services, and the
proliferation of squatter habitations that accompanied mass
urbanization in post-War South Africa. Film also includes: street
life in Sophia Town, a tribal ceremony, a "beggar band" in Tobruk
performing for pennies, the little-known intertribal bare-knuckle
fights which were organized by the police "to keep Africans off
the street" and for the entertainment of white spectators, and
separate facilities for Europeans, Africans, and Indians. Final
sequences document scenes from the British protectorates of
Basutuland, Swaziland, and Bechuanaland within the Union of South
Africa. Herero sites outside of Windhoek are shown with women in
dress which was introduced by German missionaries at the turn of
the century. In Bechuanaland, Herero are filmed in an annual
procession to pay tribute to ancestors who died fighting the
Germans. As an advocate for the continued independence of these
peoples, Reverend Scott presented a petition to the United
Nations from the Herero of Bechuanaland stating their opposition
to incorporation within South Africa. Herero are shown gathering
to hear news of the United Nations response to their petition.
Creator: Michael Scott, minister (1907-1983)

AF-91.13.12: [Joseph Towles Footage of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania
and Egypt, 1966]
1966; 4,536 ft silent color; video
Footage shot in Africa and the United States. Footage includes
scenes of Makerere University and students, the Royal Regatta on
Lake Entebbe, Murchison Falls National Park (Kabalega National
Park) and the falls, Ik villages and inhabitants, Karimojong
jumping style dance typical of Nilotic people and moving Colin
Turnbull's Steinway concert grand piano from Virginia to New York
City.
Creator: Joseph Towles, anthropolgist (1937-1988)

AF-91.13.13: [Joseph Towles Zaire Film Study: Nkumbi and Elima
Initiations: Mbuti, Bandaka and BaBira, 1970-1972]
1970-1972; 3,816 ft (1 hr 45 min) silent color; video;
supplementary materials: 4
Footage documents various aspects of Nkumbi initiations in Epulu
and Eboyo villages and an Elima initiation for girls at Kopu
Village, Ituri Forest, northeast Zaire. Nkumbi initiation
includes preparations for the initiation involving Mbuti and
village boys, masked dancers, initiates withstanding various
ordeals, and initiates painted in white clay dancing in keefa
(raffia skirts). Elima initiation includes mostly Mbuti girls
wearing long grass skirts and headdresses dancing while holding
small bows and arrows. Footage also includes Murchison Falls
National Park (Kabalega National Park) in Uganda with shots of
the falls and wildlife including rhinoceros, water buffalo,
hippopotamus, elephants, warthogs, and crocodiles; Towles
compound and garden and pet baby baboon; Kinshasa docks; river
banks as seen from a steamer; Kisangani and Mbuti villages around
Kisingani; general activities of Epulu including clearing forest
for fields and fishing. See also [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1954:
Edited Version], [Mbuti Pygmy Film Study, 1971-1972], and [Mbuti
Pygmy Footage: Forest Camp, Bira and Ngwana Villages, and Station
de Chasse, 1954].
Creator: Joseph Towles, anthropologist (1937-1988)

AF-91.15.1: [Ikoma Dance, c. 1938]
c. 1938; 100 ft (4 min) silent b&w; video
Footage of unknown origin of Ikoma women, Tanganyika (Tanzania),
dancing in an open area.

AF-91.18.1: BAOBAB PLAY*
1966; 8 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, illustrates the nature of play among !Kung children.
Children and teenagers throw sticks, berries, and leaves at each
other from perches in a large baobab tree. Film is made from
footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958 expedition
supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the
Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.2: AN ARGUMENT ABOUT A MARRIAGE*
1966; 18 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, explores the impact of European (Boer) farms upon
both the economic and social life of the !Kung. Film explores the
conflict which arises when a group of !Kung are forced to work on
a Boer farm and the competing marital rights which two !Kung men
claim with respect to the same woman as a result of this
incident. The film explores the complexities of !Kung kinship
classification, marriage rules, and bride service as well as the
nature of conflict management among the !Kung. Film is made from
footage shot in conjunction with the 1957 expedition supported by
the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the Smithsonian
Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.3: BITTER MELONS*
1966; 30 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, focuses on the social context of musical performance
and the feelings of sociability among a small band of /Gwi. A
blind musician plays music that he has composed on his hunting
bow evoking the landscape and its diverse wildlife as well as the
routines of daily life including collecting food, hunting, and
sharing a meal. Film is made from footage shot in conjunction
with the 1955 expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of
Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.4: CHILDREN THROW TOY ASSEGAIS*
1966; 4 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, illustrates how male !Kung children learn traditional
hunting skills. Young boys throw toy spears into a tree, trying
to make them stick in to the bark as a girl looks on. Film is
made from footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958
expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University
and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.5: DEBE'S TANTRUM*
1966; 9 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namiabia, takes a revealing look at relations between San
parents and children. San parents rarely punish their children,
believing it ineffective and a source of public conflict. This
film focuses on an episode between a mother and her recalcitrant
son. Film is made from footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-
1958 expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard
University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.6: A CURING CEREMONY*
1966; 8 min sound b&w; video
Edited film shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namiba. Documented is a !Kung healer called upon to minister
to a pregnant woman who has fallen ill with malaria. The healer,
a relative of the sick woman, enters a mild trance and seeks to
cure the victim.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.7: A GROUP OF WOMEN*
1966; 5 min sound b&w; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, explores the nature of sociability among !Kung women.
Depicted are !Kung women as they rest, talk, and nurse their
babies under the shade of a baobab tree. This film provides a
good illustration of "collective mothering" in which several
!Kung women support each other and share the nurturing role.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.8: !KUNG BUSHMEN HUNTING EQUIPMENT*
1966; 37 min sound color; video
Edited film shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia. Shown in detail are all the pieces of the !Kung
hunting kit and how each piece is made and used, from the
collection of the raw materials to the final fabrication,
including the preparation of poison arrows. Film is made from
footage shot in conjunction with the 1952-1953 expedition
supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the
Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.9: LION GAME*
1966; 4 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia. !Kung boys mimic the hunting of a lion. A young man
pretends to be a lion and is "hunted" and "killed" by a group of
boys. Film is made from footage shot in conjunction with the
1957-1958 expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard
University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.10: THE MEAT FIGHT*
1966; 14 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, illustrates the role of leaders in !Kung society and
the ability of the !Kung to settle disputes without violence or
formal political organization. In this film, an argument arises
when an antelope killed by a hunter from one band is found and
distributed by a man from another band. This film reveals how
authority is exercised spontaneously in absence of formalized
positions of leadership to mediate the conflict. Film is made
from footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958 expedition
supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the
Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.11: THE MELON TOSSING GAME*
1966; 15 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, shows how games can mask underlying social and
personal tensions among the !Kung. Women from three separate
!Kung bands are shown gathered at a mangetti grove to play the
melon tossing game. Women form a semi-circle which moves counter-
clockwise as each woman, in turn, runs to the center of the
circle, dances several steps, and tosses the melon to the next
woman at the proper moment in the song. Film is made from footage
shot in conjunction with the 1957 expedition supported by the
Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the Smithsonian
Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.12: MEN BATHING*
1974; 14 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, depicts !Kung men bathing and socializing at a "pan"
or catchment spot for water. Those gathered use the occasion to
exchange sexual jokes with pleasure and hilarity. Film is made
from footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958 expedition
supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the
Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.13: N!AI, THE STORY OF THE !KUNG WOMAN*
1980; 59 min sound color; video
Edited film shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia. Footage provides a broad overview of !Kung life, both
past and present, and an intimate portrait of N!ai, a !Kung woman
in her mid-forties. N!ai's own story provides a look at changes
in !Kung life during the past forty years. As N!ai speaks, the
film presents scenes from the 1950s that show her as a young girl
and wife. N!ai talks of her recollections as a child, of the
abundance of game, the sharing of food, and of kin-based
principles of traditional !Kung life. The film then moves to the
contemporary scene where the !Kung are settled on a South African
government reservation where land, game, and plant foods are
scarce, disease is common, and secrecy and money have given rise
to divisiveness among the !Kung. Film is based on footage shot
during the 1950s expeditions supported by the Peabody Museum of
Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.14: N/UM TCHAI: THE CEREMONIAL DANCE OF THE !KUNG
BUSHMEN*
1966; 20 min sound b&w; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia. A "medicine dance" is depicted among the !Kung and
the role of n/um tchai (dancing/supernatural potency) in healing
and in warding off evil forces is explained. Women are shown
sitting on the ground, clapping and singing and occasionally
dancing a round or two, while men circle around them, singing and
stamping rhythms with their feet. Several !Kung men are seen in
different levels of trance, a state associated n/um, (healing
power within a curer). Film is made from footage shot in
conjunction with the 1957 expedition supported by the Peabody
Museum of Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.15: TUG-OF-WAR, BUSHMEN*
1966; 6 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, explores the nuances of physical competition among
the !Kung. Boys in two teams are shown wrestling over a length of
rubber hose. Film is made from footage shot in conjunction with
the 1957-1958 expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of
Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.16: THE WASP NEST*
1966; 20 min sound color; video; supplementary materials: 1
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, explores the interactions between !Kung women as they
engage in their everyday pursuit of food. Film is made from
footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958 expedition
supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and the
Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.17: PLAYING WITH SCORPIONS*
1966; 4 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, shows !Kung children playing with scorpions. Film is
made from footage shot in conjunction with the 1957-1958
expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University
and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.18: A RITE OF PASSAGE*
1966; 14 min sound color; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, captures the importance of a young !Kung boy's
passage into social manhood as he kills his first wildebeest,
undergoes a scarification ceremony, and proves himself to his
future father-in-law by supplying him with meat for the entire
village. Film is made from footage shot in conjunction with the
1952-1953 expedition supported by the Peabody Museum of Harvard
University and the Smithsonian Institution.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.18.19: A JOKING RELATIONSHIP*
1974; 13 min sound b&w; video
Edited film, shot in the Nyae-Nyae region of the Kalahari Desert
in Namibia, depicts a moment of flirtation in a joking
relationship between a young !Kung wife and her great-uncle. Film
captures the importance of joking relationships among the !Kung
for providing opportunities for casual intimacy, emotional
release, and support.
Creator: John Marshall, ethnographic filmmaker (1932- )

AF-91.20.8: CAPE TO KENYA
1971; 2,959 ft (82 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 1,2,3
Edited film documents travel from the Cape of Good Hope to Kenya.
Locales visited in South Africa include: Cape Town; vineyards of
Paarl; an ostrich farm; the Transkei; Zululand; Durban; game
reserves of Hluhluwe, Kruger National Park and Mkuze; Pretoria;
Johannesburg; Soweto; Premier Diamond Mine; Victoria Falls; and
Matabele. Locales in Uganda include Kampala and Murchison Falls
and in Kenya include Nairobi and Amboseli-Maasai Reserve. Peoples
filmed include: Zulus, Ndebele people, Indian population of
Durban, Bantu of Soweto, and the Maasai.
Creator: Thayer Soule, travel-lecturer

AF-91.20.24: SOUTH AFRICA
1950; 3,151 ft (89 min) silent color; video; supplementary
materials: 3
Edited film documents travel in South Africa. Film includes:
diamond and gold mines; Cape Town (OK Bazaar, Adderley Street,
Rhodes Memorial, and Cape Town University); atop Table Mountain;
KWV Winery; Seven Weeks Poort; ostrich farm; Wilderness Lagoon;
Transkei with scenes of local inhabitants; Hluhluwe game reserve;
Durban (Zulu Rickshaw boys and Athlone Gardens); Zululand showing
Zulus and a dance at Ndwedwe; Natal Park mountains; Johannesburg
(Rissik Street, Jobert Park, mine dumps, Rand Refinery, making
gold bricks, and a mine dance); Pretoria (a Ndebele family, Zulu,
and Kruger statue); and various wild animals at Kruger Park.
Creator: Thayer Soule, travel-lecturer

AF-91.21.5: WONDERS OF THE SAHARA
c. 1970; 1,800 ft (51 min) sound color; video
Edited film documents Explorers Club expedition to Tchad (Chad)
lead by A. Burks Summers. Footage includes: male coming of age
celebration in Sara village; visit to chief of Boli village and
examination of musical instruments; camp life; gazelles,
waterbucks, and baboons; former French Foreign Legion posts that
have been converted into administrative centers and markets for
desert people; rock pile tombs, cave paintings, and stone tools;
oasis of Fada; and hunting of wild onyx and barbary sheep.
Creator: Maurice H. Stans

AF-91.21.6: JAMBO PORINI
c. 1955; 2,100 ft (60 min) sound color; video
Edited film documents the Cleveland Zoo East Africa Expedition to
the British Colony of Kenya (Kenya) and Tanganyika (Tanzania) to
secure animals for the zoo. Footage includes: Maasai village and
flamingos on Lake Manyara, Tanganyika (Tanzania); secretary
birds, wild dogs, antelopes, maribou storks, zebra, gnu, and
baboons on the Serengetti Plain; Maasai chief with herd of cattle
and musical instruments at Ekoma; street scenes and shoe making
near Lake Victoria; and black rhino, crocodile, cranes,
ostriches, eland, hyenas, and other east African wildlife.

AF-93.3.2: NATIVE AFRICA
c. 1930s; 355 ft (15 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film produced by Castle Films and distributed for "The
Adventure Parade" series was filmed in southern Africa. Footage
includes street scenes and rickshaw boys in Capetown; kraals
including milking goat, shaving head, facial markings, starting a
fire with sticks, and village women and children; ceremonial
dance; elephants being worked by men; girls fishing in river
using nets; and game reserve with zebra, giraffes, lions, and
elephants.
Creator: Eugene W. Castle, film editor (1897-1960)

AF-93.5.1: [Okiek Film Study, 1983-1984]
1983-1984; 6,192 ft (2 hrs 58 min) silent color; video
Footage shot among the Okiek of Kenya. Footage includes
documentation of a number of girl's coming-of age ceremonies at
various sites (Sapoitit [Chepto] and Nkaroni), pottery making,
beehive tending, trap making, domestic and economic activities,
and scenes of forest and gardens.
Creator: Corinne Kratz, anthropologist (1953- )

AF-93.14.1: DEEP HEARTS*
1980; 1,908 ft sound color; film
Edited film of young men of the Bororo Fulani, pastoral nomads of
the Niger Republic, wearing elaborate makeup and garb for
participating in a "beauty contest." Known as a garawol, this
"contest" features the ritual dancing and display by males, each
seeking to be chosen most attractive by a specially designated
female of the group. The event reflects culturally constructed
notions of beauty, manhood, individuality, and envy.
Creator: Robert Gardner, ethnographic filmmaker

AF-93.14.2: R1VERS OF SAND*
1974; 3,024 ft sound color; film
Edited film documents the life of the Hamar of southwest Ethopia
with focus on gender divided labor and the effects of sexual
inequality on social, cultural and religious life. Film also
includes the Hamar ritual of female flogging by males.
Creator: Robert Gardner, ethnographic filmmaker

AF-93.24.6: BUSHMAN OF THE KALAHARI*
1967; 450 ft sound color; film
Television broadcast segment from AFRICA produced by ABC News is
narrated by anthropologist George Silberman. Film documents daily
life among the /Gwi Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, South Africa.
Shown are root gathering and camp life as well as extended
hunting scenes.

AF-93.24.26: LEOPOLD SEDAR SENGHOR*
1967; 1,035 ft sound b&w; film
Television broadcast is a program from the "Creative Person
Series" produced by National Educational Television. Film
presents the early life of Senghor, poet laureat of Africa and
first president of Senegal, and his poetry as read in English by
his nephew Maurice Senghor. Footage includes images of rural
Senegal, entourage of the king, and Senegalese men dancing.
Creator: Carole Marver, filmmaker
Creator: Eugene Marver, filmmaker

AF-93.24.28: CHICKEN SACRIFICE*
1967; 250 ft sound color; film
Edited film is the twelth in a series of films on African village
life produced by the International Film Foundation. This film
documents a chicken sacrifice among the Dogon people of the Mali
highlands. The chicken's throat is cut, the blood is poured over
a mound, the chicken is cleaned and cooked, and the "broth" is
used to make a "dough" which is later eaten with the chicken
meat.
Creator: Hermann Schlenker, cameraman

AF-93.24.34: MUSIC OF AFRICA*
1963; 1,035 ft sound b&w; film
Television broadcast produced by National Educational Television
for "Cultures and Continents" series features Nigerian musician
Fela Sowande and the drum orchestra of Nigerian master drummer
Solomon Ilori. Film explores various forms of traditional African
music and music created by mingling African and Western cultures.
Creator: Lela Swift, film director

AF-93.29.1: [CAR AND CAMERA AROUND THE WORLD: Africa, 1921-1929]
1921-1929; 500 ft (19 min) silent b&w; video
Edited film Segment from the edited film CAR AND CAMERA AROUND
THE WORLD. Scenes include streets of Cape Town and Durban, South
Africa, including rickshaw boys pulling tourists; crossing the
Limpopo River in automobile; various scenes in present-day
Mozambique; funeral ceremony showing masses of tribesmen arrayed
in large feather head-ruffs in Uganda; interactions between
expedition members and chief; women in line dance; dancing,
drumming, and imbibing beer; along the Nile; and a Cairo bazaar.
Creator: Aloha Baker, explorer (1908- )

AF-94.2.1: A SPIRIT HERE TODAY: A SCRAPBOOK OF CHOPI VILLAGE
MUSIC*
1994; 45 min sound color; video
Edited film presents a sample of the music and dance of the Chopi
villagers of Mozambique. Film emphasizes how singing and dancing
is a reflection of Chopi history, values, and spirit. Footage
includes the chingomana women's dance, boy's initiation dances,
funeral songs, social commentary songs, and the "Great Song"
where the entire village participates. Footage consists of film
taken in Mozambique before the wars of 1989-1992, interviews with
Chopi refugees in Zimbabwe, and scenes of Chopi life in
Mozambique after the war and drought.
Creator: Gei Zantzinger, ethnographic filmmaker

AF-94.8.1: SORCERERS' VILLAGE (outtakes)
1954; 3,000 ft silent color; supplementary materials: 1,6
Outtakes from edited film documenting an expedition in search of
a school of sorcerers and witchcraft in Ivory Coast. Tribal
groups encountered were Lobi, Abron, and Baule. Witnessed were
ceremonies involving masked sorcerers, childbirth and snake
rituals, coronation of Essey Bonzou, and activities in the
sorcerers' school in the village of Yho.
Creator: Hassoldt Davis, explorer (1907-1959)

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