of the Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum
Collection of Indian Photographs
The photographs in this collection were
obtained from a variety of sources and were originally treated by different methods upon
acquisition. Some had no control established over them. Others were acquired by the Bureau
of American Ethnology or, later, the National Anthropological Archives and were controlled
through the manuscript catalog (see the series of numbered manuscripts, entry 60). In some
cases, photographs were originally parts of collections of private papers; and the
photographs, although separated from the manuscript material, were assigned the same
numbers as the manuscript material. Thus, the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and
Francis La Flesche were identified as manuscript 4558 and so were the photographs. Yet
other photographic collections were obtained by the United States National Museum
Department of Anthropology and were assigned accession and catalog numbers.
Thus the photographs existed as many separate entities. At some
undetermined time, the many collections were brought together and insofar as possible
integrated in a filing arrangement based on the classificatory scheme in George Peter
Murdock's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, 1960. The filing was
carried out, however, in a way that allows the material to be identified as a BAE, USNM,
or NAA acquisition and the accession and catalog numbers are still associated with the
collections. Material filed under a given tribal name, for example, may be further divided
into categories for BAE, USNM, NAA, or unidentified accessions. These categories may be
still further subdivided into lots identified by the accession or catalog numbers or by
indications that such numbers are missing.
Material that did not for some reason fit into the filing scheme continued
to be controlled by a catalog number. Thus the collection has two divisions: (l) material
in the predetermined classificatory scheme and (2) material outside that scheme that is
still primarily controlled by a number. In this appendix, the classificatory scheme is
outlined for the former material; for the latter, a brief description is provided for each
Alaskan Lapps (imported to herd reindeer)
general and unidentified
Coast Salish (including general and unidentified, Clallam, Duwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot,
Nisqualli, Puyallup, Quinaielt, Semiahmoo, Squamish, Twana)
basketry (including unidentified or composite, Atsugewi, Klamath, Maidu,
Mission, Pomo, Shasta, Tubatulabal,
general and unidentified
Warm Springs (Tenino)
general and unidentified
general and unidentified
Sauk and Fox
Tete de Boule
general and unidentified
Iroquois (including general and unidentified, Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca,
Powhatan (including unidentified,
Chickahominy, Mattapony, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Potomac, Powhatan, Rappahannock)
Miscellany and unidentified
Indians (including burials, celebrations,
children, dances, habitations, sign language, schools [Carlisle, Phoenix Indian School,
Sherman Institute, soldiers])
River Basin Surveys
District of Columbia
Central America (including Honduras)
Central and South America
Canal Zone and Panama
South America: Lesser Antilles
miscellaneous South America (including Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela)
Northwest Coast (including Haida, Kwakiutl, Tlingit, Tsimshian)
Basin (including Bannock, Paiute, Ute,
Ute and geological views)
Plains (including Arapaho, Arikara, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Dakota, Gros
Nez Perce, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Shoshoni, Wichita)
Midwest (including Chippewa, Winnebago)
Eastern Canada (including Micmac,
Southeast (including Choctaw)
Southwest (including Acoma, Apache, Havasupai, Hopi, Maricopa, Mohave, Navaho, Papago,
Pecos, Pima, Pueblo unidentified, San Felipe, San Juan, Santo Domingo, Taos, Yuma, Zuni)
North American, unidentified
archeology, United States
forts and camps
Robert T. Hill collection of views taken in Panama, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. It includes
flora, fauna, city views, structures, agriculture, and scenic views. Costa Rica views are
of a railroad; those in Panama are largely of the Panama Canal. Some photographs are of
Indians, including one of a Talamanca.
Photographic prints of drawings by Rudolph Friederich Kurz collected by David I. Bushnell,
Jr. The drawings were published in Journal of Rudolph Friederich Kurz, translated
by Myrtis Jarrell and edited by J.N.B. Hewitt, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 115,
Prints of line drawings relating to Indian subjects received from Mrs. J. W. Courtney.
Included is a scene of a battle involving Hernando de Soto and Motiliones, Indian women
dunking Colonel Smith, and Mrs. Merrill killing attackers.
Photographs of Maya near Chichen Itza made ca. 1931 by Morris Steggerda, of the Carnegie
Institution of Washington Department of Genetics. Includes names, ages, and subgroups of
Manuscript 3912 a, b, and c
William S. Soule views and portraits taken near Fort Dodge, Kansas, and Camp Supply and
Fort Sill in modern-day Oklahoma, including Arapahos, Caddos, Cheyennes, Comanches,
Kiowas, Kiowa-Apaches, and Wichitas. In albums or mounted on cards.
Humphrey Lloyd Hime photographs taken at Lord Selkirk's Settlement on the Red River, ca.
Blackmore Museum album of American Indians, consisting mostly of photographs taken at the
McClees studio in Washington, D.C., 1857-1858, by Julian Vannerson and Samuel A. Cohner.
Most negatives are in the glass negative collection (entry 84).
A J. Walter Fewkes collection concerning archeology in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, British
Columbia, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico, New Mexico, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, and the West Indies, especially Cuba and
Trinidad. With the photographs are cartographic materials, notes, and letters.
Enlargements of negatives from the glass negative collection (entry 84). The prints were
apparently used in exhibits.
Photographs of southwestern subjects by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. See entry 108 for a note
on Stevenson and her photographs.
These albums mainly hold Victor Mindeleff's and John K. Hillers' photographs of
southwestern archeological sites. There are also photographs of inhabited pueblos and of
Ft. Defiance and personnel there.
Albums with prints of American Indians made from the glass negative collection (entry 84).
In forming the collection, Ferdinand V. Hayden and William Blackmore planned to publish a
national album. This had not been done in 1878 when John Wesley Powell began to make
motions to take over the anthropological work of the federal geological surveys. Hayden,
concerned with credit to himself and the United States Geological Survey of the
Territories, hastily responded by trying to get institutions to purchase sets of albums or
portfolios. Hayden seems to have followed a plan whereby the sale of one album furnished
money for the preparation of another. Insofar as it has been possible to determine, Hayden
produced only a very few sets. The three examples of this collection are all sets of
albums (attempts have filed to locate examples of the portfolios). The albums were usually
of three volumes (one single-volume selection has been reported in anthropological
literature but it was one apparently furnished without cost) and had hand-mounted prints
with captions cut from William Henry Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of
North American Indians, United States Geological Survey of the Territories,
Miscellaneous Publications, number 9, Washington, 1877.
Photographs of paintings by Paul Kane based on sketches made in 1845-1846. The images
include representations of Assiniboin, Babine, Chinook, Chippewa, Clallam, Cowichan,
Cowlitz, Cree, Dakota, Menominee, Potawatomi, Powhatan, and Ottawa. Reproduction of the
photographs will require the permission of the Royal Ontario Museum, which has the
Microfilm of Paul Kane sketchbooks related to 4427, above.
Désiré Charnay photographs of Chichén Ítza, Mitla, Palenque, and Uxmal, ca. 1857.
Postcards showing varieties of Indian corn and a buffalo scapula hoe.
John R. Swanton slides, made ca. 1944, concerning the work of the De Soto Commission.
Includes artwork showing De Soto, views of sites, and cartographic items.
Copy prints of the Stanley J. Morrow collection in the W. H. Over Museum, University of
South Dakota, including images of Arikara, Bannock, Cheyenne, Crow, Dakota, Hidatsa,
Mandan, and Ponca Indians. The collection also includes views of Deadwood, Rapid City,
Vermillion, and Yankton and scenes relating to the Civil War, the Custer retrieval
expeditions, and the Battle of Slim Buttes.
Prints of Indians "some of whom traveled with a medicine show throughout Chicago and
the West," including Eskimos and Pawnee, Kickapoo, and unidentified Indians.
A scrapbook maintained by Richard K. Cantley, an Englishman who traveled in the United
States and Canada around 1860-1862. Included are photographs, clippings, watercolor
sketches, ink sketches, pencil sketches, menus, and various types of souvenirs. The
photographs include views made around Chatham, Petersborough, York, Rochester and other
towns of England (especially castles, abbeys, and cathedrals); the St. Paul, Minnesota,
area; and Cleveland, Ohio. There are also photographs of Dakota Indians.
Prints from negatives made on the Wheeler Expeditions, 1871-1874, and the David Sloane
Stanley Yellowstone Expedition of 1873. Photographers include William Bell, Timothy
O'Sullivan, and William Pywell. Includes a copy of a letter from William Henry Jackson to
Mathew W. Stirling, of February 20, 1937. See also manuscript 4499-4501 below and entry
Descriptive list and notes regarding photographs made on the Wheeler Expeditions. The
notes were compiled around 1935-1948 by persons interested in the expedition.
Timothy H. O'Sullivan and William Bell sterographic views made on the Wheeler Expeditions,
Views made on the Wheeler Expeditions, 1871-1874,& some made by Timothy O'Sullivan.
Includes views of the exploration party, camps, archeological views, and Indians.
Photographs of sketches by Charles-Alexandre Lesueur, 1816-1837, including archeological
sites in Indiana and Kentucky, Choctaw Indians in Tennessee and Louisiana, and Plains
Includes stereographic views issued by the Wheeler Expeditions collected by Alice
Cunningham Fletcher. Other parts of Fletcher's photographic collection have been left with
the manuscript material or interfiled in the portion of this collection (BAE/USNM
photographs of Indian) arranged by tribe.
Photographs and other material received from John Witthoft, of the Pennsylvania State
Museum, including photographs of Apaches and Arapahos.
Photographs of Utes, made in 1913 by Stewart, a photographer of Colorado Springs,
Copy of a print showing Williamsburg, Virginia, between 1732 and 1747.
Views and portraits by William S. Soule.
James Earl Taylor album "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War:& Surveys,
Expeditions, Mining, and Scenery of the Great West," compiled around 1863-1900.
Included are images of Apaches, Navahos, Sauk and Fox, and other Indians; many western
personalities; military personnel; forts; and other subjects.
Francis Harper photographs of Chipewyan, Cree, Salteaux, and Slave Indians taken on a
Geological Survey of Canada expedition to Great Slave Lake in 1914.
Copy prints of Guy F. Cameron photographs of Aleuts, Eskimos, and Athapaskan and Tlingit
Institute of Social Anthropology photographs made in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and
Latin America photographs copied from published sources, including Indians of Bolivia,
Brazil, British Guiana, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela, and the Virgin Islands. The
material was part of George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America, a World War
II information file comparable to the Pacific Survey File of entry 91.
Unidentified lantern slides from a collection of negatives and other materials donated by
the Department of the Interior library. Most have been interfiled in the first part of
Copy prints of the Charles M. Bell negative collection that is part of the series of glass
negatives of Indians (entry 84).
J. Owen Dorsey collection of North American Indian photographs.
Neil M. Judd and Stuart M. Young photographs taken at White Canyon and Bluff City, Utah,
in 1907; Alkali Ridge, Utah, in 1908, and in northern Arizona and southern Utah in
William S. Soule photographs made around 1867-1874.
Photographic prints, partially identified as Cherokee, Comanche, Oto, and Kiowa, bought in
1900 from a man named Mcdonald.
Photographs by Timothy O'Sullivan or John Moran on the Darien Expedition, 1870-1871;
photographs taken by William Henry Jackson on the Hayden Survey, and other photographs.
Division of Physical Anthropology photographs, lithographs, and other prints of
anthropologists, including Harrison Allen, J. Lawrence Angel, Karl Ernst von Baur,
Alphonse Bertillon, Paul Broca, Tom Campbell, Raymond Dart. W. Montague Cobb, Eugene
Dubois, William C. Farrabee, Paul Fejos, James A. Ford, Marcus S. Goldstein, V.
Guiffrida-Ruggeri, Alfred C. Haddon, Ales Hrdlicka, Alex D. Krieger, Karl Gorjanovic
Kramberger, Louis S.B. Leakey, Frank Micka, Samuel G. Morton, Leon Manouvrier, Marshall T.
Newman, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Frederic W. Putnam, Gustaf Ritzius, T. Dale Stewart,
Jeffrey G. Wyman, H.G. Welcker, and others.
Geologist Edward L. Estabrook's 1914-1916 photographic negatives made in China, mainly in
Copies from the Birmingham, England, Public Library of the Benjamin Stone collection of
photographs of American Indians, including Arikara, Blackfoot, Chippewa, Cree, Crow,
Dakota, Flathead, Iroquois, Kutenai, Pawnee, Ute, and Winnebago subjects. The collection
also includes scenes and archeological views.
Views of Miao people by staff photographers of the State Railways of Thailand, 1967.
Miscellaneous lantern slides of American Indians, including Arapaho, Dakota, Isleta,
Kickapoo, Ute, and Yavapai. Also included are Philippine subjects.
Return to BAE/USNM Photographs of Indians and Other Subjects.