National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives


Classification of the Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Collection of Indian Photographs

The photographs in this collection were obtained from a variety of sources and were originally treated by different methods upon acquisition. Some had no control established over them. Others were acquired by the Bureau of American Ethnology or, later, the National Anthropological Archives and were controlled through the manuscript catalog (see the series of numbered manuscripts, entry 60). In some cases, photographs were originally parts of collections of private papers; and the photographs, although separated from the manuscript material, were assigned the same numbers as the manuscript material. Thus, the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche were identified as manuscript 4558 and so were the photographs. Yet other photographic collections were obtained by the United States National Museum Department of Anthropology and were assigned accession and catalog numbers.

Thus the photographs existed as many separate entities. At some undetermined time, the many collections were brought together and insofar as possible integrated in a filing arrangement based on the classificatory scheme in George Peter Murdock's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America, 1960. The filing was carried out, however, in a way that allows the material to be identified as a BAE, USNM, or NAA acquisition and the accession and catalog numbers are still associated with the collections. Material filed under a given tribal name, for example, may be further divided into categories for BAE, USNM, NAA, or unidentified accessions. These categories may be still further subdivided into lots identified by the accession or catalog numbers or by indications that such numbers are missing.

Material that did not for some reason fit into the filing scheme continued to be controlled by a catalog number. Thus the collection has two divisions: (l) material in the predetermined classificatory scheme and (2) material outside that scheme that is still primarily controlled by a number. In this appendix, the classificatory scheme is outlined for the former material; for the latter, a brief description is provided for each numbered collection.

CLASSIFICATORY SCHEME

Arctic
general
Alaska
Alaskan Lapps (imported to herd  reindeer)
Aleut
Eskimo
Eskimo: Greenlan
Eskimo: Labrador

MacKenzie Yukon
general and unidentified
Chipewyan
Dogrib
Kaska
Khotana
Sarsi
Slave
Sokulk
Tahltan
Tanana

Northwest Coast
general
Bellacoola
Coast Salish (including general and unidentified, Clallam, Duwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot, Nisqualli, Puyallup, Quinaielt, Semiahmoo, Squamish, Twana)

Haida
Kwakiutl
Makah
Nootka
Quileute
Tlingit
Tsimshian

Oregon Seaboard
Chinook
Hupa
Kalapooian
Karok
Tillamook
Tolowa
Tututni
Wiyot
Yurok

California
general
Klamath
Maidu
Miwok
Modoc
Pomo
Tulare
Wintun
Yana
Yokuts
Yuki
basketry (including unidentified or composite, Atsugewi, Klamath, Maidu,
Mission, Pomo, Shasta, Tubatulabal,
Yokuts, Yuki)

Peninsula
Cahuilla
Diegueño
Luiseño
Mission
Serrano
Seri

Basin
general and unidentified
Bannock
Mono
Paiute
Paiute: Chemehuevi
Panamint
Shoshoni
Ute
Washo

Plateau
general
Cayuse
Colville
Flathead
Kalispel
Klickitat
Kutenai
Lillooet
Nez Perce
Okanagan
Paloos
Salish (interior)
Sinkiuse
Spokan
Thompson
Umatilla
Warm Springs (Tenino)
Wasco
Yakima

Plains
general and unidentified
Arapaho
Arikara
Assiniboin
Blackfoot
Caddo
Cheyenne
Comanche
Crow
Dakota
Hidatsa
Iowa
Kansa
Kichai
Kiowa
Mandan
Missouri
Omaha
Osage
Oto
Pawnee
Ponca
Quapaw
Waco
Wichita

Midwest
general and unidentified
Kickapoo
Menominee
Miami
Peoria
Potawatomi
Sauk and Fox
Shawnee
Winnebago

Eastern Canada
Abnaki
Algonkin
Chippewa
Cree
Micmac
Mistassin
Montagnais
Naskapi
Ottawa
Passamaquoddy
Penobscot
Salteaux
Tete de Boule

Northeast
general and unidentified
Delaware
Huron
Iroquois (including general and unidentified, Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora)
Mohegan
Nanticoke
Pequot
Stockbridge
Wampanoag

Southeast
general
Alabama
Algonquian, southern
Biloxi
Catawba
Cherokee
Chickasaw
Chitimacha
Choctaw
Creek
Powhatan (including unidentified,
Chickahominy, Mattapony, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Potomac, Powhatan, Rappahannock)
Seminole

Southwest
Acoma
Apache
Cochiti
Cocopa
Havasupai
Hopi
Isleta
Jemez
Laguna
Maricopa
Mohave
Nambe
Navaho
Papago
Pecos
Picuris
Pima
Pojoaque
Pueblo, unidentified
Sandia
San Ildefonso
San Juan
San Miguel
Santa Clara
Santo Domingo
Sia
Taos
Tesuque
Tewa
Walapai
Yavapai
Zuni

Miscellany and unidentified
buffalo
buildings
forts
Hayden Survey
historical
Indians (including burials, celebrations,
children, dances, habitations, sign language, schools [Carlisle, Phoenix Indian School, Sherman Institute, soldiers])
missions
museum specimens
portraits
rock circles
scenic views

Archeology
Southwest ruins
River Basin Surveys
miscellaneous unidentified
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Canada
Puerto Rico
Mexico
Central America (including Honduras)
South America
miscellany
Central and South America
Mexico
Canal Zone and Panama
South America: Lesser Antilles
miscellaneous South America (including Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela)
Oceania
Hawaii

Stereographs
Arctic
Mackenzie-Yukon: Athapascan
Northwest Coast (including Haida, Kwakiutl, Tlingit, Tsimshian)
Oregon Seaboard
California
Peninsula
Basin (including Bannock, Paiute, Ute,
Ute and geological views)
Plateau
Plains (including Arapaho, Arikara, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Dakota, Gros Ventre, Iowa,
Nez Perce, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Shoshoni, Wichita)
Midwest (including Chippewa, Winnebago)
Eastern Canada (including Micmac,
Nascapi)
Southeast (including Choctaw)
Southwest (including Acoma, Apache, Havasupai, Hopi, Maricopa, Mohave, Navaho, Papago, Pecos, Pima, Pueblo unidentified, San Felipe, San Juan, Santo Domingo, Taos, Yuma, Zuni)
North American, unidentified
Mexico, unidentified
archeology, United States
forts and camps
portraits, non-Indian

 

 


NUMBERED COLLECTIONS

Manuscript 2206
Robert T. Hill collection of views taken in Panama, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. It includes flora, fauna, city views, structures, agriculture, and scenic views. Costa Rica views are of a railroad; those in Panama are largely of the Panama Canal. Some photographs are of Indians, including one of a Talamanca.

Manuscript 2522c
Photographic prints of drawings by Rudolph Friederich Kurz collected by David I. Bushnell, Jr. The drawings were published in Journal of Rudolph Friederich Kurz, translated by Myrtis Jarrell and edited by J.N.B. Hewitt, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 115, 1937.

Manuscript 3265
Prints of line drawings relating to Indian subjects received from Mrs. J. W. Courtney. Included is a scene of a battle involving Hernando de Soto and Motiliones, Indian women dunking Colonel Smith, and Mrs. Merrill killing attackers.

Manuscript 3319
Photographs of Maya near Chichen Itza made ca. 1931 by Morris Steggerda, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington Department of Genetics. Includes names, ages, and subgroups of the subjects.

Manuscript 3912 a, b, and c
William S. Soule views and portraits taken near Fort Dodge, Kansas, and Camp Supply and Fort Sill in modern-day Oklahoma, including Arapahos, Caddos, Cheyennes, Comanches, Kiowas, Kiowa-Apaches, and Wichitas. In albums or mounted on cards.

Manuscript 4285
Humphrey Lloyd Hime photographs taken at Lord Selkirk's Settlement on the Red River, ca. 1857-1858.

Manuscript 4286
Blackmore Museum album of American Indians, consisting mostly of photographs taken at the McClees studio in Washington, D.C., 1857-1858, by Julian Vannerson and Samuel A. Cohner. Most negatives are in the glass negative collection (entry 84).

Manuscript 4321
A J. Walter Fewkes collection concerning archeology in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, British Columbia, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, and the West Indies, especially Cuba and Trinidad. With the photographs are cartographic materials, notes, and letters.

Manuscript 4322
Enlargements of negatives from the glass negative collection (entry 84). The prints were apparently used in exhibits.

Manuscript 4325
Photographs of southwestern subjects by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. See entry 108 for a note on Stevenson and her photographs.

Manuscript 4362
These albums mainly hold Victor Mindeleff's and John K. Hillers' photographs of southwestern archeological sites. There are also photographs of inhabited pueblos and of Ft. Defiance and personnel there.

Manuscript 4420
Albums with prints of American Indians made from the glass negative collection (entry 84). In forming the collection, Ferdinand V. Hayden and William Blackmore planned to publish a national album. This had not been done in 1878 when John Wesley Powell began to make motions to take over the anthropological work of the federal geological surveys. Hayden, concerned with credit to himself and the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, hastily responded by trying to get institutions to purchase sets of albums or portfolios. Hayden seems to have followed a plan whereby the sale of one album furnished money for the preparation of another. Insofar as it has been possible to determine, Hayden produced only a very few sets. The three examples of this collection are all sets of albums (attempts have filed to locate examples of the portfolios). The albums were usually of three volumes (one single-volume selection has been reported in anthropological literature but it was one apparently furnished without cost) and had hand-mounted prints with captions cut from William Henry Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, United States Geological Survey of the Territories, Miscellaneous Publications, number 9, Washington, 1877.

Manuscript 4427
Photographs of paintings by Paul Kane based on sketches made in 1845-1846. The images include representations of Assiniboin, Babine, Chinook, Chippewa, Clallam, Cowichan, Cowlitz, Cree, Dakota, Menominee, Potawatomi, Powhatan, and Ottawa. Reproduction of the photographs will require the permission of the Royal Ontario Museum, which has the original paintings.

Manuscript 4428
Microfilm of Paul Kane sketchbooks related to 4427, above.

Manuscript 4449
Désiré Charnay photographs of Chichén Ítza, Mitla, Palenque, and Uxmal, ca. 1857.

Manuscript 4457
Postcards showing varieties of Indian corn and a buffalo scapula hoe.

Manuscript 4465
John R. Swanton slides, made ca. 1944, concerning the work of the De Soto Commission. Includes artwork showing De Soto, views of sites, and cartographic items.

Manuscript 4468
Copy prints of the Stanley J. Morrow collection in the W. H. Over Museum, University of South Dakota, including images of Arikara, Bannock, Cheyenne, Crow, Dakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Ponca Indians. The collection also includes views of Deadwood, Rapid City, Vermillion, and Yankton and scenes relating to the Civil War, the Custer retrieval expeditions, and the Battle of Slim Buttes.

Manuscript 4469
Prints of Indians "some of whom traveled with a medicine show throughout Chicago and the West," including Eskimos and Pawnee, Kickapoo, and unidentified Indians.

Manuscript 4481
A scrapbook maintained by Richard K. Cantley, an Englishman who traveled in the United States and Canada around 1860-1862. Included are photographs, clippings, watercolor sketches, ink sketches, pencil sketches, menus, and various types of souvenirs. The photographs include views made around Chatham, Petersborough, York, Rochester and other towns of England (especially castles, abbeys, and cathedrals); the St. Paul, Minnesota, area; and Cleveland, Ohio. There are also photographs of Dakota Indians.

Manuscript 4498
Prints from negatives made on the Wheeler Expeditions, 1871-1874, and the David Sloane Stanley Yellowstone Expedition of 1873. Photographers include William Bell, Timothy O'Sullivan, and William Pywell. Includes a copy of a letter from William Henry Jackson to Mathew W. Stirling, of February 20, 1937. See also manuscript 4499-4501 below and entry 146.

Manuscript 4499
Descriptive list and notes regarding photographs made on the Wheeler Expeditions. The notes were compiled around 1935-1948 by persons interested in the expedition.

Manuscript 4500
Timothy H. O'Sullivan and William Bell sterographic views made on the Wheeler Expeditions, 1871-1874.

Manuscript 4501
Views made on the Wheeler Expeditions, 1871-1874,& some made by Timothy O'Sullivan. Includes views of the exploration party, camps, archeological views, and Indians.

Manuscript 4534
Photographs of sketches by Charles-Alexandre Lesueur, 1816-1837, including archeological sites in Indiana and Kentucky, Choctaw Indians in Tennessee and Louisiana, and Plains Indian artifacts.

Manuscript 4558
Includes stereographic views issued by the Wheeler Expeditions collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher. Other parts of Fletcher's photographic collection have been left with the manuscript material or interfiled in the portion of this collection (BAE/USNM photographs of Indian) arranged by tribe.

Manuscript 4559
Photographs and other material received from John Witthoft, of the Pennsylvania State Museum, including photographs of Apaches and Arapahos.

Manuscript 4572
Photographs of Utes, made in 1913 by Stewart, a photographer of Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Manuscript 4575
Copy of a print showing Williamsburg, Virginia, between 1732 and 1747.

Manuscript 4599
Views and portraits by William S. Soule.

Manuscript 4605
James Earl Taylor album "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War:& Surveys, Expeditions, Mining, and Scenery of the Great West," compiled around 1863-1900. Included are images of Apaches, Navahos, Sauk and Fox, and other Indians; many western personalities; military personnel; forts; and other subjects.

Manuscript 4606
Francis Harper photographs of Chipewyan, Cree, Salteaux, and Slave Indians taken on a Geological Survey of Canada expedition to Great Slave Lake in 1914.

Manuscript 4616
Copy prints of Guy F. Cameron photographs of Aleuts, Eskimos, and Athapaskan and Tlingit Indians.

Manuscript 4623
Institute of Social Anthropology photographs made in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and unidentified countries.

Manuscript 4632
Latin America photographs copied from published sources, including Indians of Bolivia, Brazil, British Guiana, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela, and the Virgin Islands. The material was part of George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America, a World War II information file comparable to the Pacific Survey File of entry 91.

Manuscript 4638
Unidentified lantern slides from a collection of negatives and other materials donated by the Department of the Interior library. Most have been interfiled in the first part of this lot.

Manuscript 4661
Copy prints of the Charles M. Bell negative collection that is part of the series of glass negatives of Indians (entry 84).

Manuscript 4751
J. Owen Dorsey collection of North American Indian photographs.

Manuscript 4757
Neil M. Judd and Stuart M. Young photographs taken at White Canyon and Bluff City, Utah, in 1907; Alkali Ridge, Utah, in 1908, and in northern Arizona and southern Utah in 1908-1909.

Manuscript 4791
William S. Soule photographs made around 1867-1874.

Manuscript 4793
Photographic prints, partially identified as Cherokee, Comanche, Oto, and Kiowa, bought in 1900 from a man named Mcdonald.

Manuscript 4801
Photographs by Timothy O'Sullivan or John Moran on the Darien Expedition, 1870-1871; photographs taken by William Henry Jackson on the Hayden Survey, and other photographs.

Manuscript 4822
Division of Physical Anthropology photographs, lithographs, and other prints of anthropologists, including Harrison Allen, J. Lawrence Angel, Karl Ernst von Baur, Alphonse Bertillon, Paul Broca, Tom Campbell, Raymond Dart. W. Montague Cobb, Eugene Dubois, William C. Farrabee, Paul Fejos, James A. Ford, Marcus S. Goldstein, V. Guiffrida-Ruggeri, Alfred C. Haddon, Ales Hrdlicka, Alex D. Krieger, Karl Gorjanovic Kramberger, Louis S.B. Leakey, Frank Micka, Samuel G. Morton, Leon Manouvrier, Marshall T. Newman, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Frederic W. Putnam, Gustaf Ritzius, T. Dale Stewart, Jeffrey G. Wyman, H.G. Welcker, and others.

Manuscript 4847
Geologist Edward L. Estabrook's 1914-1916 photographic negatives made in China, mainly in Shensi Province.

Manuscript 4859
Copies from the Birmingham, England, Public Library of the Benjamin Stone collection of photographs of American Indians, including Arikara, Blackfoot, Chippewa, Cree, Crow, Dakota, Flathead, Iroquois, Kutenai, Pawnee, Ute, and Winnebago subjects. The collection also includes scenes and archeological views.

Manuscript 4960
Views of Miao people by staff photographers of the State Railways of Thailand, 1967.

Manuscript 4995
Miscellaneous lantern slides of American Indians, including Arapaho, Dakota, Isleta, Kickapoo, Ute, and Yavapai. Also included are Philippine subjects.

Return to BAE/USNM Photographs of Indians and Other Subjects.

 


Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives