Register to the Papers
By Robert Lynn Montgomey
Revised by Will Greene
James A. Ford (1911-1968) was a creative, seminal figure in the development of modern American archaeology. As a student, Ford worked with archaeologist Henry B. Collins in Alaska, where he also conducted physical anthropological studies among the Eskimos at Point Barrow (1931-1932). Early in his career Ford did extensive fieldwork in the lower Mississippi Valley, establishing the region as a distinct archaeological province. During World War II, Ford served as a senior design specialist in the U.S. Army Quartermaster GeneralŐs Office, where he designed and tested military clothing and equipment under Arctic conditions. After the war, Ford was appointed Curator of North American Archaeology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, for which he surveyed and excavated several sites in Chira, Piura and Lambayeque Valleys of Peru. FordŐs final major field project was a survey and excavation of the Veracruz coast of Mexico from 1963 to 1966, which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
From 1964 until his death, Ford was Curator of Archaeology at the Florida State Museum in Gainesville, Florida and taught anthropology at the University of Florida, Gainesville. His interest in the prehistory of the southeastern United States continued throughout his life. His last work, published posthumously, attempted to trace traits in the archaeological record of the southeastern United States to Mesoamerica, establishing a cultural link between regions.
The papers of James Alfred Ford were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the Florida State Museum through Jerald T. Milanich of the MuseumŐs Department of Social Sciences. The bulk of the collection was acquired in 1982 with additional papers and correspondence arriving in 1983, 1986 and 1998. The Florida State Museum has donated the rights in the unpublished material to the public. The collection occupies approximately 15 linear feet of shelf space.
These papers reflect the professional life of James Alfred Ford from 1931 to 1958. The collection contains personal papers, correspondence, journals, notes, maps, and published and unpublished writings relating to his archaeological expeditions in Alaska, the Southeastern United States, Central and South America, as well as papers relating to FordŐs work in the ArmyŐs Office of the Quartermaster General.
Major correspondents include Henry B. Collins, Michael D. Coe, Carleton S. Coon, Donald Collier, Waldo R. Wedell, William Duncan Strong, Clifford Evans, J. Clarence Simpson, William G. Sutherland, Dennis Flanagan, James A. Oliver, George Quimby, Gordon R. Willey, George D. Spindler, Harry L. Shapiro. Of interest is FordŐs letter of resignation from the American Museum of Natural History (placed under Harry L. Shapiro), in which he details his grievances with the administration of the museum, and materials concerning a practical joke Ford and George Quimby played on Colin Turnbull (see Quigley papers). Most of FordŐs correspondence during his employment at the American Museum of Natural History is not included in this collection and there is no personal correspondence between Ford and his wife, Ethel. Some of FordŐs papers and photographs on his Alaska work are in the papers of Henry B. Collins and are so identified in the register.
Arranged alphabetically by subject.
This series contains information of a personal nature about James Ford. Of special interest are the notes Ford took while a student at the University of Michigan that may have been for a course taught by Leslie White and the notes taken in two classes taught by Ruth Benedict at Columbia University, and several versions of his curriculum vitae.
Titles in quotation marks are Ford's own.
Certificate, 1961 (given to Ford for his participation in the 1961 summer teaching symposium on archaeological field methods at the Universidad del Atlantico in Barranquilla, Columbia; Ford published the results as A quantitative method for deriving cultural chronology, 1962)
Class notes, Columbia University, 1940-1941 (two folders; notes from two classes taught by Ruth Benedict on the history of anthropological theory and social organization)
Field work and technical publications chart, n.d. (in the map drawer)
"Michigan notes," 1938 (Ford's notes that apparently are for an introductory anthropology course, possibly taught by Leslie Alvin White, at the University of Michigan)
Newspaper clipping, 1966
Pilot log book, 1936 (a log book of Ford's flight times)
Portraits, ca. early 1930s
Vitae, ca.1940s<196>ca.1963 (copies of several of Ford's curriculum vitae)
Arranged alphabetically by correspondent or subject.
This series includes correspondence from individuals and organizations, correspondence on particular subjects, photographs, materials relating to Ford's expeditions, early drafts of manuscripts, and correspondence with people other than Ford.
Originally, most of the correspondence was arranged chronologically (from 1958 to 1968 and alphabetically thereunder) or by subject. To improve access to the papers, all the correspondence was merged and arranged alphabetically. Ford's alphabetizing system was maintained for the most part.
There are some special points of which one should be aware. Most of Ford's correspondence during his employment at the American Museum of Natural History is not in the papers, and there is no personal correspondence between Ford and his wife, Ethel. All of the correspondence of Betty J. Meggers is with the correspondence of Clifford Evans. Correspondence to someone other than Ford is more likely to be with the correspondence arranged under subjects. Not all correspondents had their letters placed in individual folders; at the beginning of most letters of the alphabet is a miscellaneous folder for those correspondents who had only a few letters. All the folders are listed in the contents; however, not all the correspondents from the miscellaneous folders are listed. There is correspondence is many of the other series.
Of special interest is Ford's letter of resignation from the American Museum of Natural History, placed under Harry L. Shapiro, in which he details his grievances with Shapiro and the administration of the Museum. Materials concerned with Ford's theoretical ideas are placed under Formative Paper, Typology Discussion, and Wenner-Gren Conference on the American Formative Cultural Stage. Papers concerning Ford's archaeological work are under Alaska; Columbia, 1941-1942; Lower Mississippi Valley Survey; and Viru Valley. Under the Quigley papers are the materials concerning a practical joke Ford and George Quimby played on Colin Turnbull.
The Lower Mississippi Valley Survey correspondence was originally divided among three folders and arranged in roughly chronological order. To make the materials more accessible, the papers were arranged alphabetically by correspondent or subject and chronologically thereunder; Ford's letters addressed to both Phillips and Griffin were placed under Phillips.
Titles in quotation marks are Ford's own.
A, Miscellaneous-Evans (A, Miscellaneous; Abelson, Philip H. [Science]; "Alaska" [materials relating to Ford's expeditions in 1931-1932 and 1936; includes correspondence with Moreau B. Chambers, Henry B. Collins, Henry W. Griest, Paul Silook, and Alexander Wetmore]; Alexander, Carl; B, Miscellaneous [includes Byers, Douglas S.]; Baby, Raymond S.; "Barrow Collections" [correspondence with Waldo R. Wedel]; Bell, Robert E.; Bird, Junius B.; Brainerd, George W.; Brown, Jerry; Bullen, Ripley P.; C, Miscellaneous [includes Coon, Carleton S. (concerning a disagreement with Morris Opler)]; Coe, Michael D.; Collier, Donald; Collins, Henry B.; "Columbia, 1941-1942" [materials concerning the survey of the Cauca Valley; includes Ford and his wife's identification papers, letters of introduction, and correspondence; correspondents include Walter Beecher, Wendel C. Bennett, Donald Collier, George Quimby, Luis Alfonso Sanchez, William Duncan Strong, George C. Vaillant, and Gordon R. Willey]; "Columbia University" [includes Ford's grade transcript and correspondence with Clifford Evans and Ralph Linton]; Crevenna, Theo R.; D, Miscellaneous [includes DeJarnette, David L.]; E, Miscellaneous [includes Ekholm, Susanna and Engel, Frederick]; Ekholm, George K.; Evans, Clifford and Betty J. Meggers)
F, Miscellaneous-Lowe (F, Miscellaneous; Flanagan, Dennis [Scientific american]; Ford, James Alfred [traveling expenses and notice of his appointment to the staff of the University of Florida for 1967-1968]; "Formative Paper" [two folders; includes correspondence with Raymond S. Baby, Junius B. Bird, Ripley P. Bullen, Michael D. Coe, Susanna Ekholm, Clifford Evans and Betty J. Meggers, Sherwood M. Gagliano, Robert F. Heizer, Nicholas H. Holmes (includes some correspondence of James B. Griffin), Richard Stockton MacNeish, Ramiro Matos, Gregory Perino, Philip Phillips, Irving Rouse, William H. Sears, Albert C. Spaulding, Paul Tolstoy, Clarence H. Webb]; Fowler, Melvin L.; Freed, Stanley A.; G, Miscellaneous [includes Gagliano, Sherwood M. and Garrett, Whitman P.]; Griffin, James B.; Griffin, John W.; H, Miscellaneous [includes Haury, Emil W.; Heizer, Robert F.; and Howard, Edgar B.]; Haag, William G.; Holmes, Nicholas H.; Hoyle, Rafael Larco; Hunt, Helen [secretary, Florida State Museum]; Huscher, Harold A. [copies of Huscher's correspondence with Frank H. H. Roberts, no correspondence with Ford]; Irving, Laurence [includes Ford's vitae]; J, Miscellaneous [includes Jennings, Jesse D.]; K, Miscellaneous [includes Kidder II, Alfred V. and King, Arden R.]; Kolb, Charles R.; Krotser, Paula and Ray; Krueger, Harold W.; L, Miscellaneous [includes Landgraf, John L.]; Lieban, Richard W.; Lowe, Gareth)
Lower Mississippi Valley Survey-Nuckolls ("Lower Mississippi Valley Survey" [four folders; includes correspondence with S.C. Dellinger, James B. Griffin, Carl E. Guthe, Preston Holder, Arthur Randolph Kelly, Philip Phillips, Albert C. Spaulding, William Duncan Strong, and Gordon R. Willey]; M, Miscellaneous [includes McNutt, Charles H.]; MacNeish, Richard Stockton; Makin, Earle C.; Matos, Ramiro; Mays, Asa Jr.; McGimsey, Charles R. III; Medellin Zenil, Alfonso; Memos [concerning the Formative paper]; Moberg, Carl-Axel; Muelle, Jorge; N, Miscellaneous; Neitzel, Robert Stuart [includes letters from William W. Wells to Ford]; Nuckolls, John B.)
O, Miscellaneous-Swadesh (O, Miscellaneous [includes Office of Strategic Services and Osmundsen, Lita Fejos]; Oliver, James A.; Olivos, Luis; Opler, Morris E.; Orr, Kenneth G.; P, Miscellaneous [includes Poverty Point]; Pegram, George B.; Perino, Gregory; Phillips, Philip; Polhemus, Richard R.; Purcell, John [Scientific american]; "Quigley Papers" [papers concerned with a practical joke Ford and George Quimbly pulled on Colin Turnbull]; R, Miscellaneous [includes Robbins, Maurice]; Redfield, Alden; Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo and Alicia; Rice, E.F.; Rouse, Irving; S, Miscellaneous [includes Schaedel, Richard P.; Spindler, George D.; Stewart, Thomas Dale; and Sturtevant, William C.]; Sanoja Obediente, Mario Jose; Sears, William H.; Shapiro, Harry L. [includes Ford's letter of resignation in which he criticizes Shapiro and Colin Turnbull]; "Simpson and Sutherland correspondence" [correspondence by J. Clarence Simpson and William G. Sutherland concerning archaeological work in Hillsborough County, Florida]; Smith, Allan H. [National Science Foundation]; Smith, Hale G.; Society for American Archaeology; Spaulding, Albert C.; Swadesh, Morris)
T, Miscellaneous-Z, Miscellaneous (T, Miscellaneous [includes Tax, Sol]; Taylor, William E.; Tolstoy, Paul; Treistman, Judith M. [International encyclopedia of the social sciences]; "Typology discussion" [includes correspondence with Clifford Evans, Albert C. Spaulding, and Julian H. Steward]; "Umiak" [materials are concerned with the Umiak type boat; see War Department entry]; V, Miscellaneous; "Viru Valley" [includes correspondence with William Duncan Strong]; "Viru Valley, Scientific american" [concerns Ford's article on the Viru Valley; includes correspondence with Donald Collier, Dennis Flanagan, William Duncan Strong, and Gordon R. Willey]; W, Miscellaneous [includes Washburn, A.L.; Wood, Raymond; Woodbury, Robert L.]; Wallrath, Matthew; "War Department" [materials are concerned with Ford's work during World War II; includes Ford's identification cards; see the Umiak entry]; Wauchope, Robert; Webb, Clarence H.; "Wenner-Gren conference on the American Formative cultural stage" [includes correspondence with Gareth W. Lowe and Lita Osmundsen]; West, Frederick Hadleigh; Wheat, Joe Ben [secretary, Society for American Archaeology]; Willey, Gordon Randolph; Williams, Stephen; Z, Miscellaneous)
Arranged chronologically. Undated materials are placed before dated papers.
Ford obtained a grant from the National Research Council in 1933 to conduct archaeological surveys in Mississippi and adjacent parts of northern Louisiana during the summer. From September through November of 1933, Ford assisted Frank Maryl Setzler in his excavations at the Marksville site in Louisiana. The project was financed by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
In 1934, Ford investigated a tabby ruin at Elizafield Plantation near Brunswick, Georgia for the Georgia State Park Police. The ruin was believed to be an old Spanish mission, but Ford conclusively showed that the ruin was that of a nineteenth century sugar mill.
In 1938, a Louisiana State University-Works Progress Administration program was begun to add to the work previously done by Ford on the Lower Mississippi Valley and to preserve Indian sites before they were destroyed. The project operated for two years during which Ford planned and directed archaeological projects in Louisiana. The program was headquartered in New Orleans, and carried out excavations that included Crooks mound in La Salle parish and the Greenhouse site in Avoyelles parish, Louisiana, and sites in Lee County, Mississippi. Some of the archaeologists who joined Ford in this endeavor were Robert Stuart Neitzel, William T. Mulloy, Arden R. King, Preston Holder, Edwin B. Doran, Walter Beecher, Carlyle Smith, Andrew Albrecht, George I. Quimby, and Gordon R. Willey. The papers include materials produced after Ford had left the program.
Ford began work at the Poverty Point site in Louisiana in 1952 when he did an aerial survey. The following year he excavated with Clarence H. Webb and Robert Stuart Neitzel. He returned for extensive excavations of the site in 1955 with Junius B. Bird and Neitzel.
See the series of photographs for images from some of these expeditions. See the series of correspondence under Lower Mississippi Valley survey, and under P, Miscellaneous is a letter relating to the Poverty Point site. Titles in quotation marks are Ford's own.
Undated, general (includes a map of Arkansas, charts of ceramic distributions, drawings of ceramic styles and decorations, and paste-ups of two plates for an unidentified article; some of these materials may be for the Marksville, Louisiana site; all the materials are in the map drawer)
Survey of northern Louisiana field notebooks (three books)
Exploration notes by Setzler (3 folders; includes notes on the Hopewell mound collection at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; notes on the geology of the Marksville area; a bibliography for archaeological work in Louisiana; an artifact catalog of Marksville material in the Smithsonian; photocopies of newspaper articles about Setzler's excavations; notes on [Gerald?] Fowke's excavations in the area; articles on Setzler in the Science news letter and in the New ERA newletter; sections and plans of mound 6 [in the map drawer]; reprints of two Setzler publications; Setzler's unfinished and unpublished manuscript on Marksville, including a postcard to Setzler from Ford, comments on the manuscript by William Duncan Strong and John R. Swanton, photographs and plates for the manuscript, and a manuscript on the Crooks site; correspondence to Setzler from Ford [1933, 1939 (including some from Gordon R. Willey), and 1961] and Harry J. Lemley ; an artifact catalog; and a manuscript of Setzler's article "Pottery of the Hopewell type from Louisiana")
Field notebooks (two notebooks; Seltzer's[?] notes on Mounds 4 and 8; Ford's[?] on Mound 5, the village site, and the lodge site)
Pottery analyses (sherd counts and analyses from the sites)
Miscellany (includes manuscripts, reprints, letters, and photographs pertaining to the site; in the map drawer is a ceramic analysis, drawings of the site, and maps)
ca.1933(?), Mississippi (notes on ceramics from Yazoo county and Holmes County; includes photographs)
1934, Georgia expedition, report of Ford on the tabby ruin near Brunswick, Georgia (MS 4141; original and carbon; the carbon identifies sections of the report that were not published)
1935-1937, Louisiana, Louisiana State University School of Geology (Ford was a research archeologist for the LSU School of Geology until 1946)
Trip to St. Bernard Parish, February 1935
Diary, numerous sites, 1-13 June 1935
Diary, numerous sites, 15-26 June 1935
Dunbarton site, 1-15 February 1937
Sanson mound, 18 August
McGuffee site, Mitchell site, Neild place, Wiley place, n.d.
Angola farm, burials 1-4, n.d.
Allen site burials, Wilkinson site burials, ca. 10- 12 December 1936
1938-1940, Louisiana, LSU-WPA
Annual report, 1939 (two folders; includes "Tchefuncte: A pre-Marksville horizon in Louisiana" by Ford and George Quimby, "Tchefuncte crania" by Charles E. Snow, and "A survey of Indian agriculture in the Southeast" by Andrew C. Albrecht)
Quarterly reports, December 1938 (includes reports on Crooks mound and the Greenhouse site; a chart of sherds from Crooks mound is in the map drawer)
Avoyelles parish, site 16AV1, 1939
Field notes and photograph data forms
Profile descriptions and field notes by Edwin B. Doran
Find data forms
Feature data forms
Field catalogue forms
Find number controls and laboratory summarization
Progress record forms
Baptiste site, 16AV25, n.d. (report by Carlyle Smith and analyses of the ceramic artifacts)
Nick Place, site 16AV22, n.d. (field notes)
St. Tammany parish, site 16ST1, 1939 (field notes and profile descriptions, engineering notebook, and photographs data forms)
Photograph catalogue form, n.d. (includes Rapides, St. Tammany, Lincoln, Avoyelles, West Baton Rouge, and unidentified parishes)
Albrecht, Andrew (?), sections from "Ethnographic survey" (two folders; introductory statements, hunting, agriculture, foodstuffs, and the bibliography)
Gordon R. Willey, "Archaeological report on collections from Lee County, Mississippi"
Archaeological survey project, 165-1-64-59, ca. 1940 (this project was begun to continue the work of the LSU-WPA project after that project expired)
Quarterly report, December 1940
"Historic sites," 1941 ("The Natchezan culture type" and "European trade artifacts in Michigan and Louisiana," by George I. Quimby, and photographs of artifacts from sites in the lower Mississippi Valley)
Photographs, Louisiana survey collections, March 1941
1955, Louisiana, Poverty Point
Journal (entries by James and Ethel Ford)
Correspondence and lists of Poverty Point collections, 1962-1966 (includes correspondence with Carl Alexander, Junius B. Bird, Frank E. Chowning, Michael D. Coe, Clifford Evans and Betty J. Meggars, William G. Haag, Joseph K. Long III, Philip Phillips, Harry L. Shapiro, Clarence H. Webb, and Gordon R. Willey; and lists of the Poverty Point collections of Carl Alexander and of Michael Beckman)
Poverty Point collections (includes lists of the Poverty Point collections of R. King Harris, Mack Huff, Damon C. Dunn, Clarence H. Webb, W.A. Thompson Jr., Manning Durham, Elbert Ezell, Carl Alexander, the Calion site in Arkansas, Paul Hodges, T.E. Bryant [from the Calion site], Edward Neild, and the Lemley Collection at the Gilcrease Institute; a list of Poverty Point sites and related sites; a tabulation of collections from the Poverty Point site by collector; and an analysis of the Poverty Point collections of Carl Alexander)
Laboratory photographs (photographs and drawings of animal remains; photographs of artifacts in the Clarence H. Webb collection, materials from several Louisiana sites [1940-1941], materials used to illustrate the Tchefuncte report, ethnographic images of Tunica Indians in Louisiana, artifacts in the Lemley collection and in the collection of Carl Alexander; and negatives of artifacts)
Arranged chronologically. Undated materials are placed before dated papers.
Ford began his work in Alaska as an assistant to Henry Bascom Collins on Collins' 1930 trip to St. Lawrence Island and the excavations at Gambel. This experience profoundly shaped Ford's archaeological outlook and was the motivating force behind his explanation of archaeological seriation. The following year, Ford excavated at the Birnirk site and surveyed the Point Barrow area at Collins' request. Ford spent the winter of 1931-1932 in Barrow, and carried out physical anthropological studies on the Eskimos and did archaeological work. In 1936, again working for Collins, Ford surveyed the coast of Alaska between Cape Prince of Wales and Point Barrow. Ford completed his studies in Alaska in 1953 when he returned to Point Barrow.
Ford made several trips to Alaska during World War II; these materials are in the series of the United States Army. Some of Ford's papers on his Alaska work are in the papers of Henry Bascom Collins and are so identified in the register to the papers. In the series of correspondence, under Alaska, are materials relating to Ford's trips in 1931-1932 and 1936, and in the series of photographs are prints from these trips. There are no materials from Ford's trip in 1953, presumably these are at the American Museum of Natural History.
Ethnographic information and folktales
General (maps of Birnirk, Nunavak, Utkiavik, and Barrows; all are in the map drawer)
Diary (entries from 6 May to 16 November)
Journal, 1931 (original and typescript; entries from 1 May to ca. 28 September)
Field notebook, 1931
Journals, 1932 (three original journals, with typescript; entries from 10 May to 22 September)
Journal, 1931-1932 (two folders; these are typescripts of the original journals with many photographs interspersed in the narrative; some of these photographs are also in the Collins papers)
Miscellaneous notes (includes ethnographic material)
Journal (original and typescript; entries from 6 July to 3 September)
Journal (typescript of the original journal; with many photographs interspersed in the narrative)
Survey of the village of Wales (notebook)
1931-1932 and 1936, excavation sites (includes notes, photographs, drawings, and typescripts)
House B, cut 5
House A, cut 4
House E, cut 12
House H, cut 12
Mound D, cut 7
Mound G, cut 8
Mound I, cut 9
Mound J, cuts 1 and 13
Mound R, cut 11
Mound S, cut 6
Mound A, house A, cut 1
Mound B, cut 2
House B, purchased
Cuts 3 and 4
Mound B, cut 2
Mound C, cut 4
Mound D, cut 3 (folder was empty)
Mound H, cut 6
Cuts 1, 2, and 3
Purchased (folder was empty)
Another area of concentration in Ford's archaeological career was his work in South and Central America. His first work was in 1941-1942 as a participant on Wendell Clark Bennett's archaeological survey of the Cauca Valley in Columbia. This project was sponsored by the Institute of Andean Research (IAR).
The Second War World intervened and Ford did not return to South America until the IAR Viru Valley project in 1946-1947, which included William Duncan Strong and Wendell Bennett. Using ceramics, Ford dated over 300 archaeological sites. Prints of the Viru Valley artifacts are in the series of photographs.
Ford's final work in South America was in 1958-1959 when he surveyed and excavated in the Chira, Piura, and Lambayeque Valleys on the northern coast of Peru. He mapped several large sites and established a ceramic chronology for these areas.
Ford's final major field project of his career was a survey and excavation program of the Veracruz coast of Mexico with Alfonso Medellin Zenil and Matthew Wallrath from 1963 to 1966. Ford was especially interested in clues that would indicate diffusion or migration from Mesoamerica to the southeastern United States. The work was sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
In the series of correspondence, under Columbia, 1941-1942, and Viru Valley are materials concerned with Ford's South American expeditions.
General (includes charts of ceramic distributions, and maps from Ford's 1941 trip to the Cauca Valley and his work on the Veracruz coast; all materials are in the map drawer)
Photographic film catalogue, 1941
Diary (entries are from 25 February to 9 March and are by both James and Ethel Ford)
Diary (typescript of Ford's diary; entries are from 11 July 1958 to 16 July 1959)
Miscellany (passenger tickets)
Arranged by subject.
During World War II (1942-1945), Ford served as a Senior Design Specialist of Arctic and winter warfare of the Research and Development Branch of the United States Army Office of the Quartermaster General. He was engaged in designing and field testing military clothing and equipment under Arctic conditions. As part of his work, Ford made 13 trips to the Alcan Highway, Alaska, and the Aleutian Islands during this period. Additional materials concerned with Ford's service in the Army are in the series of correspondence under O, Miscellaneous (Office of Strategic Services), Umiak, and War Department.
Journals for trips to Alaska (includes notes on equipment)
1941 (?; entries are from 16-24 July, but Ford was supposed to be in South America at this time and the dates do not match with any of Ford's non-Army related trips to Alaska)
1942-1943 (entries are from 12 December 1942 to
8 January 1943)
1942(?)-1943 (entries are from 3 January 1942[1943?] to 13 January 1943)
1942-1943 (entries are from 1 June to 2 August, 1942, and from 15 July to 19 August, 1943)
1943 (entries are for the 1 January to 29 February winter maneuvers; see the typescript, with photographs in this series)
1943 (entries are from 17 February to 30 March)
1945 (entries are from 2 May to 27 July)
Expense account for trip to Alaska, n.d. (does not appear to be from 1943 or 1945; best match is with the 1941[?] journal)
Notebooks, ca. 1941-1945 (these notebooks are undated and contain no diary entries, only notes on equipment and various other matters; one notebook has a glossary of Eskimo and Spanish terms and phrases)
Winter maneuvers, 1943 (see the original notes under the entry for journals; includes a transcript of the journal, a map, and photographs of the maneuvers)
United States Army Air Corps expedition to the Mt. McKinley region to recover the bodies from an airplane crash, 1944 (photographs)
Arranged chronologically. Undated materials are placed before dated papers.
The materials include published and unpublished writings, early and final drafts, correspondence with editors, and galleys. Ford's writings prior to his leaving the American Museum of Natural History are poorly represented; however, his writings while at the Florida State Museum are almost complete. There are three boxes of materials on Ford's publication A comparison of Formative cultures in the Americas: Diffusion or the psychic unity of Man?. See the series of correspondence under Formative paper, Memos, and Wenner-Gren Conference for more information on this publication. Some of Ford's writings appear in other series and are so noted in the contents list.
Undated (ten folders)
"The beginning of neolithic culture in eastern North America," ca. 1966 (in a separate folder; two drafts; possibly early drafts of "Early Formative cultures in Georgia and Florida")
"Cultural dating of prehistoric sites in Viru Valley, Peru," ca. 1948 (includes correspondence with Gordon R. Willey and Donald Collier)
"Cultural evolution and American archaeology"
"Methods and theory of archaeology," ca. 1954 (in four folders; unpublished)
"Prehistory in the Lower Mississippi Valley" or "An archaeological survey in the Lower Mississippi Valley," ca. 1964 (unpublished)
"Report on the 1933 excavations at the Marksville site" (in a separate folder; unpublished and unfinished draft)
"Some new thoughts on the same old subject--Poverty Point" (in three folders; intended to supplement the 1956 article with Clarence Webb on Poverty Point; ill-health forced Ford to withdraw from preparing this manuscript and William G. Haag wrote the report [and published it?]; includes the manuscript, maps, and plates)
"Theory," ca. 1948 (unpublished)
"Things that I know about Marksville smooth stamped" (by Ford?; unpublished)
Review of Archeological investifations in the Parita and Santa Maria zones of Panama by John Ladd, ca. 1964 (unpublished)
"Outline of Louisiana and Mississippi pottery horizons"
"Report on the conference on southeastern pottery typology" (with James B. Griffin)
"A report on a part of the material culture from the Tchefuncte shell midden site, Mandeville, Louisiana" (with Gordon R. Willey; unpublished; from the LSU-WPA archaeological survey)
Crooks site, a Marksville period burial mound in La Salle Parish, Louisiana (with Gordon R. Willey; partial)
"Motorized surface travel in the Arctic" (unpublished)
"Mound builders and mounds"
Review of Archaeology of the Florida gulf coast by Gordon R. Willey
"Archaeology: Western hemisphere"
"The history of a Peruvian valley"
The Jaketown site in west-central Mississippi (with Philip Phillips and William G. Haag)
"Informe sobre los trabajos de investigacion arqueologica, efectuados en la costa norte del Peru, durante el periodo que corresponde a 1958 al 1959" (unpublished)
"Excavation of the Hopewell culture burial mounds at Helena, Arkansas"
"In favor of simple typology"
1962 (two folders)
A quantitative method for deriving cultural chronology (in a separate folder)
Review of The Belcher mound: A stratified Caddoan site in Caddo Parish, Louisiana by Clarence H. Webb
Review of Prehistoric man in the New World edited by Jesse D. Jennings and Edward Norbeck
Review of Issaquena: An archaeological phase in the Yazoo basin of the Lower Mississippi Valley by Robert E. Greengo
1966 (two folders)
"Early Formative cultures in Georgia and Florida" (in a separate folder; includes two copies of "Some Formative traits on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico" which seem to be earlier drafts of the paper)
"Working conference on the American Formative cultures" (unpublished)
Review of Manual de arqueologia americana by Jose Alcina Franch
Review of Early Formative period of coastal Ecuador: The Valdivia and Machalilla phases by Betty J. Meggars, Clifford Evans, and Emilio Estrada
A comparison of Formative cultures in the Americas: Diffusion or the psychic unity of Man? (twenty- seven folders; includes early and final drafts)
Introduction and carbon 14
Vessel shapes A
Vessel shapes B
Part 1, pages 1-155
Part 2, pages 156-310
Part 3, pages 311-465
Part 4, pages 466-622
Part 5, pages 623-759
Materials concerning maps and charts (includes dates of sites, notes concerning artifacts, a list of plates, and notes for a conference (the one on the American Formative in 1966?); a chart with comments by Clifford Evans and Ramiro Matos is in the map drawer)
"Original draft" (Ford's own label; not complete)
"Comment on the Formative" by Ford
Comments and corrections on the manuscript (nine folders; the folders only roughly follow the pagination of the published book; includes comments by Clifford Evans, Betty J. Meggars, and Richard S. MacNeish)
The series includes manuscripts, reprints, departmental reports, letters from the authors to Ford, and newspapers articles. Writings by other authors are in many of the other series and are so identified in the contents list.
Brush, Charles F., "Pox pottery: Earliest identified Mexican ceramic," 1965
Coe, Michael D., "Preliminary report on the first season's work at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz," 1966
__________, "Solving a monumental mystery," 1967
__________, "An Olmec serpentine figurine at Dumbarton Oaks," 1967
__________, "An archaeological synthesis of southern Veracruz-Tabasco," n.d.
__________, Richard A. Diehl, and Minze Stuiver, "Olmec civilization, Veracruz, Mexico: Dating of the San Lorenzo phase," 1967
Collins, Henry Bascom, "Problems in archeology of the Arctic," 1950
Cotter, John L., "The Gordon site in southern Mississippi," ca. 1951
Department of Archeo- and Ethno- conchology of the Louisiana State Museum, first annual report, 1937 (Works Progress Administration project; includes a letter from Ford)
Epstein, Jeremiah F., "Burins from Texas," n.d.
Estrada, Emilio, "Nuevos elementos en la cultura Valdivia: Sus posibles contactos transpacificos," 1961
Fairbanks, Charles H., "Classification problems of southeastern archaeology in relation to work done in the Tennessee Valley," 1938
Howard, James H., review of The long death: The last days of the Plains Indians by Ralph K. Andrist, 1965
Huscher, Harold A., "Intermontane Athapaskan continuities," 1963
Jennings, Jesse D., "Recent excavations at the Lamar site, Ocmulgee National Monument, Macon, Georgia," 1939
Matos, Ramiro, "La decoracion pintada en la ceramica del Formativo inicial de Ancon y sus posibles conexiones," n.d.
Perino, Gregory H., "Filed teeth discoveries in the Cahokia area after 1950," ca. 1966
__________, "The Klunk mound group (Hopewell), Calhoun County, Illinois," ca. 1966 (two folders; in the second folder are plates that may be for the Klunk report)
Redfield, Alden, "The Dalton project, 1961-1962" (two folders)
Russell, R. Dana, "Effects of transportation on sedimentary particles," 1939
Russell, Richard Joel, and R. Dana Russell, "Mississippi River delta sedimentation," 1939
Scully, Edward G., "Some central Mississippi Valley projectile point types," 1951
Setzler, Frank M., "Marksville: A Louisiana variant of the Hopewell culture," n.d.
Todd, William, "Plastic clay," 1940
Trickey, E. Bruce, and Holmes(?), draft of paper testing Trickey's chronological framework, n.d.
Vescelius, Gary, "An analysis of archaeological material from Marksville, Louisiana," n.d. (four drafts)
Williams, Stephen, "Regional sequence of phases in the Lower Yazoo Basin," 1961
This series includes information concerning meetings and publications of professional organizations and institutions. There are few papers on the American Museum of Natural History and the Florida State Museum, presumably the bulk of the materials are maintained at those institutions.
Ford was the curator of North American archaeology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1947 to 1964, when he left following a dispute over how the museum was being run (see his letter to Harry L. Shapiro in the series of correspondence). From the AMNH, Ford went to the Florida State Museum as the curator of archaeology, in which capacity he served until his death. At the same time, he was a professor of anthropology at the University of Florida.
In 1953-1954, Ford assisted in the planning and installation of exhibits in the Marksville Archaeological Park Museum. The Neitzel controversy occurred when Neitzel, curator of the museum, was fired and Frank Setzler indicated in a letter to the Louisiana State Parks Recreation Commission the Smithsonian's concern about the treatment and protection of artifacts it had loaned the museum. More information on this situation is in the series of correspondence under Neitzel.
Ford and James B. Griffin planned and organized the first Southeastern Archaeological Conference held at Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1938. Ford served as chairman of the conference several times.
Ford's controversial ideas and outspokenness apparently kept him from being elected to many offices, but he did serve as president of the Society for American Archaeology from 1963-1964.
Titles in quotation marks are Ford's own.
American Anthropological Association, Fellow newsletters (October 1966 and May 1967)
American Museum of Natural History
"Eskimo sites based on collections in the Department of Anthropology, compiled by N.C. Nelson, 1940"
History of the Department of Anthropology, 1871-1952 (lists of staff, collections, expeditions, exhibits, and other information)
Labels for the Southwest Hall, ca. 1939 (a plan of the exhibits is in the map drawer)
Regional analysis or grouping of the Southwest collections, including some of the material from northern Mexico; also various special notes and records relating to these collections, 1936
Arkansas Archeological Society, 1967 (newsletter and announcement of the annual meeting)
Arctic Institute of North America, annual report, 1966
Florida State Museum
Current research, Southeast, Fall, 1964 (includes the announcement of Ford's hiring at the FSM)
Moving the library, n.d. (Ford's suggestions for moving the University library to a new research library facility; includes Ford's plan for moving the AMNH library in 1960)
International Commission for a History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind, 1966 (the contract for Ford, Clifford Evans, and Betty J. Meggars to write a section for a book; includes the manuscript)
Exhibit plan suggestions by Ford, ca. 1951-1956 (includes drawings)
Museum, 1935-1955 (includes notes for a survey of the Anna mound group by an unidentified author , correspondence with R. Stuart Neitzel, newspaper clippings, a map of the exhibit arrangement, and photographs of the exhibits)
R. Stuart Neitzel controvery, 1957-1958 (includes correspondence and newspaper clippings)
Organizacion de los Estados Americanos, 1967 (bulletin)
Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologia, XI mesa redonda, 1966 (the "Teotihuancan Conference"; manuscripts of the papers presented, none by Ford)
Southeastern Archaeological Conference (see the series of reference materials for information on other SAC conferences)
Fifth conference (1940; chaired by Ford; includes program and manuscripts of the papers presented)
Newletters (volume 1, number 4, 1939; and volume 6, number 15, 1959)
Viking Fund, supper-conference program, 1948
The series contains information which Ford apparently used in his research projects. It includes bibliographic references, notes on ceramics, site reports, photographs, field notes, drawings, and maps. Of special interest is the report on the first Southeastern Archaeological Conference.
It is not known why the materials from Hillsborough County, Florida are in the papers. The project was originally directed by Vernon Lamme, Florida State Archaeologist, for the purpose of excavating ancient village sites in Hillsborough County. The Smithsonian Institution, the South Florida Archaeological Research Society, and the Florida Historical Society were sponsors. Later, the work was continued as a Works Progress Administration project with J. Clarence Simpson in charge. Ford apparently had nothing to do with the work. In the series of correspondence, under Simpson and Sutherland, is a folder of correspondence between J.C. Simpson and William G. Sutherland.
Titles in quotation marks are Ford's own.
Bibliographies (maintained until 1968; includes a bibliography of Ford's articles through 1959)
Caddoan area trait list, n.d.
Flake tools, n.d. (drawings and descriptions of tools from various sites)
Florida, field notebook, 1930 (?; for cave number 10; Ford apparently had nothing to do with this excavation)
Florida, Hillsborough County, 1936-1938
General (includes correspondence [none with Ford], reports, site survey forms, and lists of artifacts)
Final report (?), n.d. (reports on all the mound sites; includes maps and drawings of artifacts)
Miscellaneous notes and photographs, n.d. (includes a note for an unidentified site, correspondence, and a photograph of an excavation[?] crew)
Field notes (many of these notes are not edited and marked "not for publication"; usually includes original field notebooks and typescripts of the field notebooks, burial notes, and artifact lists)
Branch mound, 1936 (maps of the site are in the map drawer)
Buck Island mound, 1937-1938 (maps of the site are in the map drawer)
Cagnini mound, 1936 (see the entry for Spender mound; maps of the site are in the map drawer) Chert quaries and sources of abrasives, n.d.
Cockroach Key mound, 1936 (three folders; includes notes on Thomas mound; maps of the site are in the map drawer)
Notes on burials
General, 1937 (includes correspondence)
Hendry Pasture mound, 1937
Jones mound, 1937 (three folders; includes photographs and maps of the site [some are in the map drawer]; see the entry for Snavely mound)
Burial data forms (original forms and carbons)
Lykes mound, 1936 (includes photographs; maps of the site are in the map drawer)
Selner mound, 1937 (maps of the site are in the map drawer)
Snavely mound, 1937 (the notebook contains notes for Jones mound)
Spender mound, 1936 (one notebook includes a list of artifacts sent to Robert E. Webb's laboratory; the other notebook contains notes for Cagnini mound)
Thatcher (Picnic) mound, 1937 (two folders)
Burial data forms (originals and carbons)
Thomas mound (see notes for Cockroach Key mound; maps of the site and drawings of potsherd decorations are in the map drawer)
First visit, 1936 (two folders)
Notes on burials
Revisited, 1937 (three folders; includes photographs)
Burial data forms (includes the original and a carbon set)
Maps of archaeological locations
Shipping invoices, 1936
Florida, Palmetto Island, n.d. (drawings and notes on ceramics)
Illinois, Cache River Basin, n.d. (Arnold Wither's types; Carbondale photographs of projectile points)
Louisiana survey, 1933-1941 (survey site records from 1933 to 1939 for several parishes; Ford excavated only in Rapides, Plaquemines, and Richland parishes; includes photographs of survey collections taken in March 1941)
Louisiana and Mississippi sites, n.d (includes carbon dates)
Miscellany, 1966 (most undated; a page showing battleship curves for several pottery types; in the map drawer is a chart of ceramic distributions in the Mobile Bay area and maps of Bryant's Landing all by E.B. Trickey and N.H. Holmes )
Southeast pottery (three folders; includes the report on the Conference on Southeastern Pottery Typology, 1938 [apparently the first Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SAC)]; descriptions of various ceramic types [1938-1939]; reprints by other authors; minutes of the SAC ; programs for June 1939, the fourth SAC, and 1955; SAC newsletters for 1939, 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1956; manuscripts of papers presented; a photograph [of participants of an unidentified SAC?]; annual meeting announcements for 1951 and 1952; a 1966 supplement to the bibliography of pottery types; and description of pottery types from Louisiana sites)
Louisiana pottery types (includes photographs)
Poverty Point materials from Carl Alexander, 1966 (photographs of materials)
Tennessee, archaeological sites in west Tennessee on the Natchez Trace, 1940
Texas, Arroyo Los Olmos, Starr County, n.d (drawings and description of flake tools)
United State Wireless Station, 1934-1935 (two field notebooks; apparently the work was done by Kervin, Underhill, and Czajkowski; Ford does not seem to have had anything to do with this excavation)
This series is composed of those materials which Ford did not maintain under a specific label and which did not fit in any of the other series.
American Museum of Natural History telephone directory, 1957
Clarence Bloomfield Moore archaeological publications, n.d. (these are not written in Ford's handwriting)
Field notes, n.d. (notes from an unidentified site)
Painted bison robe, 1954 (includes description by John Witthoft and a photograph of a line drawing of the robe)
Short hand practice notebook, n.d.
Many of Ford's Alaska photographs are also in the papers of Henry Bascom Collins. There are photographs in many of the other series and they are so identified in the contents list.
Alaska, 1936 (Point Barrow and Cape Prince of Wales region)
Lantern slides, southeastern United States, n.d.
Louisiana State University-Works Progress Administration, 1939 (these prints are unidentified as such but appear to be from this work)
Marksville, Louisiana, 1943 (most undated; includes photographs of the excavations; aerial photographs by D.M. Reeves ; aerial photographs that are probably by D.M. Reeves; and prints of Tombs M, N, O, and Q are in the map drawer)
Miscellany, 1932 (most undated; includes a print of D.J. Ford and others from Yazoo County, Mississippi; another print that may be of D.J. Ford; a print from the Norton mound group in Grand Rapids; a photograph of Ford and three other men on a roof top; and unidentified prints; some of these prints were originally maintained with the Alaska, Point Barrow and Cape Prince of Wales photographs)
South America, 1946-1947 (Viru Valley and Santa Valley; film rolls[?] 25[?], 26, 27, 30, and 31)
Alaska, 1931-1932, 1936 (prints from Point Barrow and surrounding areas)
Films, pottery stills, 1939-1940 (three canisters; maintained with the nitrate films)
The National Anthropological Archives acquired the following materials after the preceding finding aid was completed:
Box of 4x5 negatives (NAA Accession 2000-45)
Box of seven folders and loose papers -1998-1990
Accounts General - Florida State Museum 1965
Journal of Insignificant Research - humor 1960
Correspondence, 1964-66 (Ford and J.C. Dickinson)
Old Proposals - 1960's (Ford and others)
Mrs.Quigley correspondence, humor 1960
Oldsworthy. Journal of Insignificant Research article, humor 1960
Bobby Kennedy affair (theft of artifacts from AMNH, 1953)
Financial Statement - Florida State Museum 1965